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研究生:李協昌
論文名稱:子彈底火射擊前及射擊後元素鑑析之研究
指導教授:孟憲輝孟憲輝引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:鑑識科學研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:警政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:射擊殘跡電子顯微鏡底火
外文關鍵詞:gunshot residueSEM/EDXprimer
相關次數:
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摘要
本研究係以掃瞄電子顯微/X-射線能譜分析法(Scaning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis,SEM/EDX) 鑑析國內外各廠牌一般子彈及無鉛子彈之未擊發子彈底火的混合物及射擊殘跡元素,樣品包括有中央警察大學的彈藥收集和涉及刑案犯罪領等二十六種子彈被分析,這個工作目標是要建立該等子彈具射擊殘跡(gunshot residue,GSR)特異性元素之檔案或資料庫,以了解我國當前執法及犯罪使用之子彈所可能形成之射擊殘跡元素組成概況,並藉此可供鑑識單位就鑑析結果提出解釋及下定結論時之參考。
從已移走彈頭及火藥的未擊發彈殼上,藉由推進的使用慣性取出底火皿,並移走砧片取得未擊發底火的混合物,同時就試射子彈採得之手部、彈殼內及被射物表面無機射擊殘跡顆粒,分別以SEM/EDX進行元素分析。把兩種類樣品的分析結果交叉比對,了解未擊發底火的混合物及射擊殘跡的基本差異,並建立射擊殘跡的成分特性。結果顯示所有含鉛元素的未擊發底火混合物及射擊殘跡,均有出現鉛、銻、鋇等特異性元素;在無鉛子彈方面,幾乎偵測不到或只能偵測到部分的鉛、銻、鋇三種特異性元素。
近來,手持式的信號彈已經被廣泛的使用且可合法的取得,因為信號彈的底火混合物可能含有射擊殘跡的特異性元素,因此也針對信號彈進行試射,採其射擊殘跡進行分析。兩種不同顏色的信號彈試射後,就試射後採得彈殼內、試射者的手部及試射後殘餘物上的殘跡,以SEM/EDX進行元素分析,了解其殘跡是否與射擊槍枝產生之射擊殘跡具有相同或類似之形態及元素組成特徵,並評估其對射擊殘跡鑑析可能造成之干擾。結果顯示,信號彈產生的殘跡微粒與射擊殘跡相似,因此對嫌疑犯的工作及空閒時間從事的活動資訊,必須能完全的掌控,這對後續射擊殘跡的判定至關重要。
最後,也收集有關在環境與職業工作中是否產生疑似射擊殘跡之狀況之文獻提出討探,以供法庭實驗室在進行射擊殘跡分析時參考。

ABSTRACT
Elemental analysis of unfired ammunition primer mixtures and gunshot residues (GSR) were carried out in this work using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). Twenty-six kinds of ammunition including lead-containing and lead-free ones from both the ammunition collection of Central Police University and field samples of firearms-involved criminal cases were analyzed.
The aim of this work is to establish the elemental composition data of primers of handgun ammunition commonly used by domestic law enforcement officers and criminals.
Hopefully, these data would be useful for forensic scientists in detection and identification of GSR and in the identification of the type of ammunition used during gun-shooting events.
Bullet and propellants of unfired ammunition were removed employing inertia bullet extractor, the cartridge case was deprimed, and primer mixture was then recovered from the primer cup after removing the anvil. Gunshot residue samples were collected from shooter’s hand, spent cartridge case, and target surface after test firing. Both primer mixture and GSR samples were analyzed using SEM/EDX. The analysis results of both kinds of samples were compared with each other to reveal the elemental difference of primer mixture and GSR and to establish compositional characteristics of GSR. The results revealed that all of the lead-containing samples including primer mixtures and GSR contained characteristic elements of lead, barium, and antimony, for the lead-free samples none or only a part of the three characteristic elements were detected.
Recently, hand-held signaling devices have been widely used in rescues and legally available to the common people. Since the primer of signal cartridge might contain characteristic elements of GSR, a study of signal-discharged residues was performed. Signal cartridges of two different star colors were test fired. Post-discharge residues recovered from firer’s hand, spent case, wads, and hand of a subject handled spent case were analyzed using SEM/EDX. The morphology and elemental composition of signal-discharged residues were compared with that of normal GSR. The possible interference of signal-discharged residues to the detection and identification of gunshot residues was evaluated. The results revealed that signal-discharged residues contained particles compatible with GSR. These results suggest that complete information on the work and leisure-time activities of suspects are critical to the identification of GSR.
A literature review on the subject of gunshot residue-similar particles of environmental and occupational origin was also conducted. Practical summary induced from the review would be beneficial to field forensic laboratories while performing GSR analysis.

目次
第一章 緒論….………………………..…………………..1
第一節 研究動機及目的….………………………………..1
一、 研究動機..………….………………………………..1
二、 研究目的..…………….……………………………..2
第二節 研究範圍及限制………….………………………..2
一、 研究範圍……………………………………….……..2
二、 研究限制……………………………………….……..3
第三節 研究方法及流程………………………….………..4
一、 研究方法……………………………….……..……..4
二、 研究流程……………………………………….……..5
第四節 文獻探討…………………………………..….…..6
第二章 未擊發子彈底火及子彈、信號彈射擊殘跡之元素分析……………………………………………….......…..12
第一節 前言……………………………………….……..12
一、 底火的構造及分類…………………………………..12
二、 底火的成分…………………………………………..12
三、 射擊殘跡的來源及性質……………………………..13
第二節 實驗部分………………………………….……..14
一、 子彈底火擊發前元素分析……………………..……14
(一) 實驗材料…………………………….……….…....14
(二) 儀器及操作條件……………………………….…….14
(三) 實驗步驟……………………….………..…….…..15
1、 採樣………………………………….…..…………..15
2、 分析…………………………….….………….……..15
二、 子彈底火射擊後元素分析……….………..……...15
(一) 實驗材料…………………….…………….………..15
(二) 儀器及操作條件……………….…………..….…..16
(三) 實驗步驟……………………….……………...…..16
1、 試射…………………………………………………...16
2、 採樣……………………………………………….…..16
3、 分析……………………………………………….…..16
三、 信號彈射擊殘跡元素分析…………………………..17
(一) 實驗材料……………………………………………..17
(二) 儀器及操作條件………………………………………17
(三) 實驗步驟………………………………………………17
1、 試射…………………………………………….……..17
2、 採樣……………………………………….…………..17
3、 分析…………………………………………………...18
第三章 結果與討論………………………….…………...20
第一節 未擊發子彈底火與子彈射擊殘跡元素分析結果..20
第二節 信號彈射擊殘跡元素分析結果……………..…..84
第四章 結論……………………………………..…..…..104
參考資料……………………………………………..…….106
附錄圖一………………………………………………..….111

參考資料
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