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研究生:周明輝
研究生(外文):Min-Hui Chou
論文名稱:舖面落重式撓度儀之校正與成效評估研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Significance of Calibration and Performance from Pavement Falling Weight Deflectometer
指導教授:張達德張達德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ta-Teh Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:回彈模數靜態回算落重式撓度儀動態回算
外文關鍵詞:Resilient ModulusFalling Weight DeflectometerDynamic BackcaculationStatic Backcaculation
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由於歐美各國在路面工程上的主導性研究,皆以路面各層材料的回彈模數做為路面結構強度及績效評估之指標,而落重撓度儀(Falling Weight Deflectometer,簡稱FWD)可以直接量測路面撓度值再加以回算鋪面結構各層材料的回彈模數,具有維持鋪面完整及量測迅速之特性,目前已逐漸取代傳統直接鑽孔取樣的實驗方式,而被廣泛地應用來評估現有路面的結構強度,對於路面工程的完工驗收、維護策略修定及加鋪設計有極大之幫助。
國內由國道高速公路局首先引進一部落重撓度儀(型號為Dynatest 8000),自民國84年至今,並未對儀器之個別感應子以及系統整體進行相關的校正評估研究,因此對儀器目前所量測數據之可靠性並無法加以確認。故本研究將針對儀器本身之各感應子進行相關的校正與檢測工作;並將動態回算程式DBFWD與傳統靜態回算程式WESDEF之回算結果與現地各層鑽心或重模試體之回彈模數MR進行比對,以作為落重式撓度儀之功能性校正,並使儀器對路面成效評估分析之可靠性可以獲得確保。
研究結果顯示,在依據ASTM D4694-96規範與原廠校正程序進行校正,以及速度規之絕對校正後可知,儀器各感應器仍維持穩定與準確;而DBFWD與WESDEF兩套回算程式則以DBFWD所回算之結果較為準確且合理,且DBFWD對於瀝青混凝土(AC)面層及瀝青處理底層(BTB)承載性(有效彈性模數)的掌握性極佳;整體來說,以落重式撓度儀試驗來了解路面強度,並預估其壽年,乃是一個有效而快速的方法,且其可行性應是可被認同的。
The main researches in pavement engineering field in the European and American countries all take resilient modulus, MR as an index on evaluating the structure strength of the pavement and the performance. And the Falling Weight Deflection, FWD instrument can measure the deflection of the pavement directly and recalculate the MR of each layer of the pavement structure. Because of the efficiency of this testing method and can also remain the oneness of the pavement, FWD instrument is now replacing the traditional coring sample method and been wildly used on evaluating the performance and structure strength of the pavement. And this test instrument and method is very helpful to the construction to check and accep, deciding maintain tactic, and overlay pavement design.
The first FWD instrument (Dynatest 8000) was involved into the domestic by Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau 1995, the each sense cell and entire system haven’t been calibrated or evaluate studied until now, therefore the reliability and precision of the measurement result cannot be confirmed. In this study, the calibration work of the sense cells will be done, and compare the results of dynamic backcalculation program ( DBFWD ), static backcalculation program ( WESDEF ), and the MR of the in-situ coring samples and remolded samples, in order to calibrate the general system of the FWD instrument, and also provide a confidence on the reliability of the analysis of evaluating the performance of the pavement by this instrument.
According the study results, every sense cell of the instrument still remains stable and precision with a testing procedure recommended by the manufacturer and the standard test method of ASTM D4694-96, and the absolutely calibrate of the velocity gage. And DBFWD program showed a better result of higher reliability and reasonability than WESDEF program, this program is also more suitable for investigation of the open layer of the asphalt concrete and the capacity of the BTB. General speaking, using FWD instrument to investigate the strength of the pavement and predict the life time would be a efficiency, suitable, fast method and the workability is confirmed.
目 錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
誌謝……………………………………………………………….…….III
目錄……………………………………………………………….…….IV
表目錄………………………………………………………………….VIII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………….X
第一章緒論……………………………….………...……...….……1
1.1背景………………………………………..…….…………..1
1.2研究動機與目的……………………….……..……………..2
1.3研究流程……………………………….….……….………..3
第二章研究背景與文獻回顧…………………………..………..5
2.1舖面非破壞性試驗儀器類型……………………..………...5
2.1.1靜力撓度試驗……………….………………..……..…...8
2.1.2穩態動力撓度試驗……………………………..………..9
2.1.3落重式撓度儀…………………………………..………..11
2.1.4波傳遞試驗…………………………………..…………..17
2.2落重式撓度儀研究趨勢…………………………..………...17
2.3撓度檢測與評估…………………………………..………...18
2.3.1落重式撓度儀的校正…………………………..………..19
2.3.2撓度數據判讀…………………………………………....20
2.3.3撓度檢測之成果應用…………………………………....31
第三章研究規劃與儀器設備……………………..…...………...33
3.1研究規劃…………………………………………………….33
3.2儀器型式…………………………..….……………………..35
3.2.1Dynatest 8000落重式撓度儀…………………………..35
3.2.2Dynatest 8000 FWD 量測系統………………….……..40
3.2.39000型系統量測資料處理器…………………...……..41
3.2.4儀器運作方式…………………………………………..41
第四章落重式撓度儀系統校正與檢測……….……………….43
4.1系統校正規劃………………………………………………..43
4.2荷重計(Load Cell)校正……………………………………...43
4.2.1ASTM D4694-96規範要求…………………………….43
4.2.1.1校正要求…………………………………………..43
4.2.1.2校正步驟…………………………………………..44
4.2.2 Dynatest原廠校正程序………………………………..44
4.2.2.1校正要求…………………………………………..44
4.2.2.2校正儀器…………………………………………..44
4.2.2.3校正步驟…………………………………………..44
4.2.3荷重計(Load Cell)校正結果…………………………...46
4.3速度規(Geophone)校正……………………………………..47
4.3.1 ASTM D4694-96規範要求……………………………47
4.3.2Dynatest原廠校正……………………….…………….47
4.3.2.1校正原理…………………………………………..48
4.3.2.2校正儀器…………………………………………..48
4.3.2.3校正步驟…………………………………………..48
4.3.3 絕對撓度值校正………………………………………..49
4.3.3.1校正原理…………………………………………..49
4.3.3.2校正儀器…………………………………………..51
4.3.3.3校正步驟…………………………………………..51
4.3.4速度規校正結果與分析………………………………..51
4.4量測資料處理器及各介面電子組件之測試調整…………..52
4.4.19000系統量測資料處理器檢測...……………………..52
4.4.2挂車接線盒檢測………………………………………..53
4.4.3液壓裝置之檢測……..………………………………..53
4.4.4位置感應器檢測……...………………………………..54
4.4.5落錘組件之測試調整.………………………………..54
第五章現地取樣試驗與回算之比較分析………………….….56
5.1試驗規劃…………………………………………………..…56
5.2瀝青混凝土動彈模數試驗………………………………..…58
5.2.1瀝青混凝土面乾內飽和單位重試驗…………………..58
5.2.2動彈模數試驗…………………………………………..58
5.2.2.1主要試驗儀器……………………………………..59
5.2.2.2試驗系統校正……………………………………..61
5.2.2.3試驗試體處理……………………………………..62
5.2.2.4試驗步驟……………………………………….….62
5.2.2.5 值之計算…………..………………………….63
5.2.2.6 試驗結果………………….…………………..64
5.3路基土壤及底層級配重模試體之室內回彈模數試驗……..65
5.3.1路基土壤及底層級配現地密度量測…………………..65
5.3.2回彈模數試驗…………………………………………..66
5.3.2.1試驗儀器設備……………………………………..66
5.3.2.2樣品準備與處理…………………………………..67
5.3.3回彈模數試驗步驟……………………………………..68
5.3.4AASHTO T292指定之軸差壓力及圍壓試驗條件……...69
5.3.5回彈模數值計算……………………………….……….70
5.3.6回彈模數試驗結果………………………….………….71
5.4現地檢測數據之回算………………………………………..73
5.4.1舖面材料參數…………………………………………..73
5.4.2落重式撓度儀試驗結果………………………...75
5.4.3以DBFWD回算各層彈性模數………………………..75
5.4.4DBFWD程式回算值與試驗值之比較…………..…….76
5.4.5以WESDEF回算各層彈性模數………………………77
5.4.6WESDEF程式回算值與試驗值之比較……………….78
5.5試驗結果與回算結果之比較分析…………………………..79
第六章結論與建議………………………………………….….….81
6.1結論…………………………………………………………..81
6.1.1落重式撓度儀檢測系統校正…………………………..81
6.1.2 程式回算結果與現地取樣試驗比較……….………….82
6.2建議…………………………………………………….…….83
參考文獻…..……………………………………………………………85
附錄A現地鑽心及重模試體之回彈模數MR試驗結果圖表....90
附錄B 絕對校正結果圖表……..……………….……………..114
附錄C 校正過程與試驗過程照片整理…………………….115
附錄D ASTM D4694-96規範………………………………...129
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