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研究生:林上源
研究生(外文):Shang-Yuan Lin
論文名稱:應變率對地工加勁材基本性質影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):Influence of Strain Rate on Measured Geosynthetic Reinforcement Properties
指導教授:張達德張達德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ta-Teh Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:單肋強度試驗加勁材模數應變率寬幅抗張試驗
外文關鍵詞:Single Rib Strength TestStrain RateModulus of Geosynthetic ReinforcementsWide Width Tensile Strength Test
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摘 要
關鍵字:加勁材模數、應變率、寬幅抗張試驗、單肋強度試驗
地工加勁材料之強度特性通常均由ASTM D4595寬幅抗拉試驗及GRI-GG1單肋強度試驗所求得,然而,現地加勁擋土牆結構中加勁材承受拉力之真實速率約比ASTM D4595寬幅試驗中10%變形/min之拉伸速率慢約105~106等級。因此,Holtz and Lee (1998) 建議依據織物低應變率寬幅試驗結果 (Boyle et al., 1996),對不同材質織布之材料模數進行修正與調整。並發現若將修正後之材料模數應用於預測加勁擋土結構之力學機制,可產生很大之功效 (Lee et al., 1999)。故為了正確的分析加勁擋土結構內部應力-應變之分佈情形,必須將地工加勁材於低應變率狀態下所受之影響及模數折減率列入考慮。
因此,本研究為進一步探討應變率對地工加勁材性質影響之程度,針對八種不同材質、性質與強度之加勁材進行一系列之低應變率無圍壓抗張試驗,施加於加勁材之變形速率為50 ~ 0.05mm/min,試體尺寸為200mm ×200mm (夾具間為200mm ×100mm,依據ASTM D4595) 與格網單一肋條 (依據GRI-GG1)。
於研究之本文中將呈現下列成果:
1.將應變率對不同材質、性質與強度地工加勁材抗拉強度、材料模數與極限應變之影響進行分析,計算折減幅度與增量。
2.提出各種地工加勁材於低應變率狀態下之材料模數修正因子建議值。
研究之成果期望能增加大眾對地工加勁材力學性質之了解,並更準確預測加勁結構之變形行為及改善加勁擋土結構之設計方法。
ABSTRACT
Keywords:Modulus of Geosynthetic Reinforcements, Strain Rate, Wide Width Tensile Strength Test, Single Rib Strength Test
Strength properties of geosynthetic reinforcement are often obtained by performing ASTM D4595 wide width tensile test or GRI-GG1 single rib tensile tests. However, the actual rate of loading of the reinforcement in the field during wall construction may be five or six orders of magnitude slower than the standard ASTM D4595 testing rates. Holtz and Lee (1998) proposed low strain rate adjustments for moduli of different woven geotextile manufactured using different polymer materials based on the low strain rate wide width tensile test results (Boyle et al., 1996). The proposed modulus adjustments were found to be of great help in predicting performance of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) retaining walls (Lee et al., 1999). It was found that Moduli of geosynthetic reinforcement had to be adjusted for the low strain rate conditions in order to correctly analyze the stress-strain distributions inside GRS retaining structures.
However, the strain effect on nonwoven geosynthetic reinforcement and geogrid has not been well studied so far. In an effort to further analyze the strain rate effects on the engineering properties of different geosynthetic reinforcement materials. The testing strain rates are ranged from 50 mm/min to 0.5 mm/min, and the specimen sizes are varied form the single rib specimen requirement (specified by GRI-GG1) to 200mm × 200mm (specified by ASTM D4595).
In this thesis, follows will be presented:
1.Summary and discussions of the strain rate controlled strength tests of different geosynthetic reinforcements; and
2.Proposed low strain rate adjustments for moduli of geosynthetic reinforcements.
Results of this study are hoped to improve our understanding of engineering properties of geosynthetic reinforcement under actual working conditions; as well as to improve design and performance prediction of GRS structures.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………….I
英文摘要………………………………………………………….II
誌謝……………………………………………………………….III
目錄……………………………………………………………….IV
表目錄…………………………………………………………….VII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………….IX
第一章 研究目的………………………………………………1
1.1 前言……………………………………………………...1
1.2 研究動機………………………………………………..2
1.3 研究方法………………………………………...……...2
1.4 研究內容………………………………………………..3
第二章 背景分析與文獻回顧…………………………………5
2.1 簡介加勁土壤…………………………………………..5
2.2 加勁土壤結構分析模式………………………………..6
2.2.1 土壤與加勁材分解元素模型…………………….6
2.2.2 土壤與加勁材複合元素模型…………………….8
2.2.3 土壤側向複合材料模數之數值模式…………….9
2.3 簡介地工加勁材………………………………………..11
2.3.1 地工格網之定義與背景…………………………..11
2.3.2 地工格網之分類…………………………………..13
2.3.3 地工織物之定義…………………………………..13
2.3.4 地工織物之分類…………………………………..14
2.3.5 地工加勁材之特性………………………………..15
第三章 研究規劃與試驗簡介…………………………………31
3.1 研究規劃………………………………………………..31
3.2 地工加勁材基本力學性質試驗……………………….36
3.2.1 地工格網無圍壓抗張試驗……………………….36
3.2.2 地工織物基本物性試驗…………………………..38
3.3 地工加勁材低應變率抗張試驗……………………….40
3.3.1 地工織物低應變率寬幅抗張試驗……………….40
3.3.2 地工格網低應變速率抗張試驗………………….42
3.3.3 INSTRON 多功能試驗機………………………..42
3.3.4 量測儀器…………………………………………..45
3.3.5 試體之準備………………………………………..48
3.3.6 試驗步驟…………………………………………..48
第四章 試驗結果與分析………………………………………51
4.1 基本假設………………………………………………..51
4.2 試驗結果計算方法……………………………………..51
4.3 地工加勁材基本力學性質試驗結果………………….53
4.4 地工加勁材低應變率試驗結果分析………………….55
4.4.1 硬式格網試驗結果分析…………………………..59
4.4.2 軟式格網試驗結果分析…………………………..63
4.4.3 地工織布試驗結果分析…………………………..68
4.4.4 地工不織布試驗結果分析……………………….72
4.5 整合分析………………………………………………..77
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………89
參考文獻……………………………………………………….…93
附錄A 不織布NWG1與NWG2孔徑分佈試驗結果……………101
附錄B 硬式格網RG1低應變率試驗結果………….……………102
附錄C 軟式格網FG2、FG3及FG4低應變率試驗結果………..105
附錄D 地工織布WG1及WG2低應變率試驗結果…………….114
附錄E 地工織布NWG1及NWG2低應變率試驗結果…………120
附錄F 地工加勁材模數-應變率及延伸率-應變率曲線….…..126
附錄G 地工加勁材極限強度折減及應變增加幅度表……….….141
附錄H 地工加勁材各應變對應模數之迴歸方程式……………..147
作者簡歷………………………………………………………….149
表 目 錄
表2-1應變率與織物強度及破壞應變量(Shrestha et al., 1980)…..19
表2-2試驗材料及基本性質(Boyle et al., 1995)…………………..24
表2-3Gallagher(1995)與Allen et al.(1992)試驗結果對照表...29
表3-1低應變率之試驗規劃表…………………………………33
表4-1地工加勁才之基本力學性質……………………………54
表4-2應變率50mm/min試驗結果整理表……………………56
表4-3應變率10mm/min試驗結果整理表……………………57
表4-4應變率3mm/min試驗結果整理表……………………...57
表4-5應變率1mm/min試驗結果整理表……………………..58
表4-6應變率0.1mm/min試驗結果整理表……………………58
表4-7應變率0.05mm/min試驗結果整理表………………….59
表4-8RG1材料模數折減表……………………………………78
表4-9FG2材料模數折減表…………………………………….78
表4-10FG3材料模數折減表…………………………………….79
表4-11FG4材料模數折減表…………………………………….79
表4-12WG1材料模數折減表……………………………………80
表4-13WG2材料模數折減表……………………………………80
表4-14NWG1材料模數折減表…………………………………81
表4-15NWG2材料模數折減表…………………………………81
表4-165%應變對應模數之描述方程式………………………..86
表5-1修正因子對照表………………………………………….91
表G-1RG1抗張強度折減幅度表………………………………141
表G-2FG2抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………….141
表G-3FG3抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………….142
表G-4FG4抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………….142
表G-5WG1抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………...143
表G-6WG2抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………...143
表G-7NWG1抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………144
表G-8NWG2抗張強度折減幅度表……………………………144
表G-9RG1極限應變增加幅度表………………………………145
表G-10FG2極限應變增加幅度表……………………………….145
表G-11FG3極限應變增加幅度表……………………………….145
表G-12FG4極限應變增加幅度表……………………………….145
表G-13WG1極限應變增加幅度表……………………………...145
表G-14WG2極限應變增加幅度表……………………………...146
表G-15NWG1極限應變增加幅度表……………………………146
表G-16NWG2極限應變增加幅度表……………………………146
表H-12%應變對應模數之迴歸方程式……………………………147
表H-210%應變對應模數之迴歸方程式…………………………..147
表H-320%應變對應模數之迴歸方程式…………………………..148
表H-4極限應變對應模數之迴歸方程式………………………….148
圖 目 錄
圖2-1理想加勁土體示意圖(TRB, 1987)……………….……5
圖2-2(a)分解土壤─加勁材模型(Lee, 2000)…………………7
圖2-2(b)正交彈性加進土壤複合模型(Lee, 2000)…………...7
圖2-3加勁擋土牆內部元素(Lee, 2000)………………………9
圖2-4(a)加勁結構內部側向土壓及加勁材拉力分佈圖(Lee, 2000)…………………………………………………10
圖2-4(b)加勁結構複合材料側向土壓力分佈圖(Lee, 2000)..10
圖2-5不同種類、型式之地工格網(Koerner, 1994)…………12
圖2-6常見之地工織物樣品(張達德,1985)…………………14
圖2-7變形速率對聚乙烯地工格網抗張強度試驗之影響(李怡先,1991)…………………………………………..17
圖2-8土壤與地工格網間之崁鎖效應(摘自謝坤宏,1999)…18
圖2-9MTS試驗儀器及剪鉗式之變位儀(Boyle, 1995)……..26
圖2-10PP3試體之應力─應變圖(Boyle, 1995)………………27
圖2-11地工織布正規化5%割線勁度值─應變圖(Boyle, 1995)…………………………………………….28
圖3-1試驗用地工加勁材……………………………………..34
圖3-2試驗用地工加勁材……………………………………..34
圖3-3試驗規劃流程圖………………………………………...35
圖3-4硬性格網無圍壓抗張強度試驗………………………..36
圖3-5柔性格網無圍壓抗張強度試驗………………………..37
圖3-6地工織物抗張強度試驗………………………………..39
圖3-7地工織物撕裂強度試驗………………………………..39
圖3-8地工織物寬幅試驗……………………………………..41
圖3-9試驗用夾具……………………………………………...43
圖3-10INSTRON SERIES 4204 多功能試驗儀示意圖……..44
圖3-11Victor GR-C7非接觸式影像延伸器…………………..46
圖3-12Nikon 70-120影像機……………………………………46
圖3-13非接觸式影像延伸器系統……………………………..47
圖3-14IEEE-488 資料擷取器…………………………………47
圖4-1RG1格網低應變率抗張強度─應變關係圖………….60
圖4-2RG1極限應變─拉伸速率關係圖……………………..61
圖4-3RG1各應變對應之抗拉強度─拉伸速率關係圖…….61
圖4-4RG1抗張模數─拉伸速率關係圖……………………..62
圖4-5FG2格網低應變率抗張強度─應變關係圖…………..65
圖4-6柔性格網極限應變-拉伸速率關係圖…………………...65
圖4-7FG2抗張模數─拉伸速率關係圖……………………..66
圖4-8FG3抗張模數─拉伸速率關係圖……………………..66
圖4-9FG4抗張模數─拉伸速率關係圖……………………..67
圖4-10WG1織布低應變率抗張強度─應變關係圖…………69
圖4-11地工織布極限應變-應變率關係圖……………………...70
圖4-12WG1抗張模數─應變率關係圖……………………….71
圖4-13WG2抗張模數─應變率關係圖……………………….71
圖4-14NWG1不織布低應變率抗張強度─應變關係圖…….73
圖4-15不織布極限應變-應變率關係圖………………………...74
圖4-16NWG1抗張模數─應變率關係圖……………………..75
圖4-17NWG2抗張模數─應變率關係圖……………………..75
圖4-18地工格網2%應變模數圖………………………………...82
圖4-19地工格網5%應變模數圖………………………………...83
圖4-20地工格網極限應變模數圖……………………………….83
圖4-21聚丙烯(PP)地工織物5%應變模數圖…………………….84
圖4-22聚丙烯(PP)地工織物極限應變模數圖…………………...84
圖4-23地工格網極限應變-應變率關係圖……………………...87
圖4-24地工織物極限應變-應變率關係圖……………………...87
圖A-1NWG1不織布孔徑分佈圖………………………………...101
圖A-2NWG2不織布孔徑分佈圖………………………………...101
圖B-1RG1格網0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………102
圖B-2RG1格網0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….102
圖B-3RG1格網1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………103
圖B-4RG1格網10mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..103
圖B-5RG1格網50mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..104
圖B-6RG1格網低應變率抗張強度試驗……………………..104
圖C-1FG2格網0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….105
圖C-2FG2格網0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..105
圖C-3FG2格網1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………..106
圖C-4FG2格網10mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………106
圖C-5FG2格網50mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………107
圖C-6FG2格網低應變率抗張強度試驗……………………..107
圖C-7FG3格網0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….108
圖C-8FG3格網0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..108
圖C-9FG3格網1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………..109
圖C-10FG3格網10mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………109
圖C-11FG3格網50mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………110
圖C-12FG3格網低應變率抗張強度試驗……………………..110
圖C-13FG4格網0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….111
圖C-14FG4格網0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..111
圖C-15FG4格網1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………..112
圖C-16FG4格網10mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………112
圖C-17FG4格網50mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………113
圖C-18FG4格網低應變率抗張強度試驗……………………..113
圖D-1WG1織布0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗………………...114
圖D-2WG1織布0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….114
圖D-3WG1織布1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………115
圖D-4WG1織布3mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………115
圖D-5WG1織布10mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..116
圖D-6WG1織布低應變率抗張強度試驗…………………….116
圖D-7WG2織布0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗………………..117
圖D-8WG2織布0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………117
圖D-9WG2織布1mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………118
圖D-10WG2織布3mm/min抗張強度試驗……………………118
圖D-11WG2織布10mm/min抗張強度試驗………………….119
圖D-12WG2織布低應變率抗張強度試驗…………………….119
圖E-1NWG1不織布0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗……………….120
圖E-2NWG1不織布0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗………………...120
圖E-3NWG1不織布1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..121
圖E-4NWG1不織布3mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..121
圖E-5NWG1不織布10mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………122
圖E-6NWG1不織布低應變率抗張強度試驗…………………...122
圖E-7NWG2不織布0.05mm/min抗張強度試驗……………….123
圖E-8NWG2不織布0.1mm/min抗張強度試驗………………...123
圖E-9NWG2不織布1mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..124
圖E-10NWG2不織布3mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………..124
圖E-11NWG2不織布10mm/min抗張強度試驗…………………125
圖E-12NWG2不織布低應變率抗張強度試驗…………………...125
圖F-1NWG1材料模數-應變率曲線…………………………..126
圖F-2NWG2材料模數-應變率曲線…………………………..126
圖F-3不織布5%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線…………...127
圖F-4不織布10%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線………….127
圖F-5不織布20%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線………….128
圖F-6WG1材料模數-應變率曲線…………………………….128
圖F-7WG2材料模數-應變率曲線…………………………….129
圖F-8織布2%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線……………...129
圖F-9織布5%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線……………...130
圖F-10織布10%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線…………….130
圖F-11織布極限應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線…………….131
圖F-12FG2材料模數-應變率曲線……………………………...131
圖F-13FG3材料模數-應變率曲線……………………………...132
圖F-14FG4材料模數-應變率曲線……………………………...132
圖F-15柔性格網2%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線………...133
圖F-16柔性格網5%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線………...133
圖F17柔性格網10%應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線……….134
圖F-18柔性格網極限應變對應材料模數-應變率曲線………134
圖F-19RG1材料模數-應變率曲線……………………………..135
圖F-20NWG1極限應變-應變率曲線…………………………...135
圖F-21NWG2極限應變-應變率曲線…………………………...136
圖F-22不織布極限應變-應變率曲線…………………………...136
圖F-23WG1極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………..137
圖F-24WG2極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………..137
圖F-25織布極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………...138
圖F-26FG2極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………...138
圖F-27FG3極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………...139
圖F-28FG4極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………...139
圖F-29RG1極限應變-應變率曲線……………………………...140
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