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研究生:陳雅娟
研究生(外文):Ya-Juan Chen
論文名稱:電子組裝作業工作站設計之探討
論文名稱(外文):The evaluation and design of electronic assembly workstation
指導教授:林久翔林久翔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joe-Hsiang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:工業工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:輸送帶工件重量工件頻率肌電訊號輸送帶工件重量工件頻率肌電訊號
外文關鍵詞:EMGconveyorwork piece weightfrequencyposition
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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近年來電子業蓬勃發展,在電子業中除了自動化的機器之外,少不了的就是組裝工作站,而跟組裝工作站有直接關係就是操作員。在本研究中用來評估電子廠組裝工作站設計的指標就是操作員的疲勞度及績效,怎樣的設計才可將操作員的疲勞傷害降至最低並提高績效就是本研究的目的。
在組裝工作站中輸送帶扮演了很重要的角色,無論在半成品或成品的傳輸都需要輸送帶,而在組裝工作站中操作員須靠輸送帶傳遞半成品來加工,因此輸送帶的位置除了會影響操作員的績效之外,也會影響操作員的肢體疲勞度,另外,輸送帶的配置也必須考慮到裝配檯面的需求大小,而設置在正面或側面也是一個問題。目前,工廠輸送帶設置並無一定的準則,設置在操作員正面或側面都是因應工作需求或考慮機器的擺設,並沒有以操作員的主觀及肢體疲勞的客觀量測來決定,因此,本研究特地以操作員的肢體疲勞及績效為評估指標來探討輸送帶的設置位置與桌面深度的關係,並加上工件重量及操作頻率兩個因子,使其狀況更接近電子廠的組裝工作站。
本研究以操作者的主觀評量、肌電訊號均方根及中位頻率的平移、績效及離桌緣距離來評估輸送帶設置位置。分析結果顯示,作業避免將重複性高且重量重的作業結合,如果必須擇其一則寧願選擇重量重但工作頻率較低的作業,因為重複性高的作業比重量重的作業更容易造成肢體的疲勞。而在輸送帶的設置方面,設置在正面的輸送帶如果距離越遠則越容易造成肢體疲勞並降低績效,因此本研究從分析結果中發現若桌面深度到達95th percentile時,應採用設置在側面的輸送帶配置,因為95th percentile的桌面深度所造成的肢體疲勞比設置在側面的輸送帶來的高,且績效也較側面的低。因此,當工廠的組裝工作檯面深度到達48cm時,應採用設置在側面的輸送帶配置。



The electronic industry has developed vigorously recently. Both fully automatic machines and human assembly lines are used in electronic industry. There is a human machine relationship between operators and the assembly workstations. In this study, the operators’ muscular fatigue and task performance were used to evaluate the design of the electronic assembly workstation, aiming at coming up with ergonomic recommendations for the design of the electronic workstation.
The conveyor plays an important role in assembly workstations, either transporting finish goods or semi-finish goods. Operators in assembly workstations may reach their arms to the conveyor for semi-finish goods for further assembly. The reach distance of the conveyor may affect operators’ fatigue and performance. Additionally, the distance between the conveyor and the operator is affected by the size of the workbench. Two positions are usually considered in arranging the relative position of the operator to the conveyor, either locating the operator directly in front of the conveyor or locating the operator at the side of the conveyor. There is no specific rule for choosing the front or lateral position in locating the operator with respect to the conveyor. Most considerations are dependent on the task demand or machine layout, but not on the operator capacity. Therefore, this study focuses on operators’ fatigue and performance to evaluate the relationship between the position of the conveyor and the workbench depth. Frequency of operation and work piece weight are two additional factors considered in the experiment. The simulated experimental task is performed as close as possible to that in the electronics assembly workstation.
The dependent variables are the subjective measure, the EMG root mean square, mean power frequency, task performance, and the distance from the subject to the workbench. The result shows that high frequency tasks have a greater impact on the operator fatigue than heavy tasks. As for the position of the conveyor, the fatigue level increases and performance reduces with the increase of the workbench depth when the conveyor is in front of the operator. This study also found that when the workbench depth reaches 95th percentile of the arm reach value, it is better to locate the conveyor laterally to the subject, because the longer workbench depth in the front will cause higher fatigue and lower performance than the lateral position.


Keyword: conveyor, position, frequency, work piece weight, EMG


第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1

第二章 文獻探討 3
2.1相關文獻 3
2.2輸送帶操作員之肌肉骨骼傷害 5
2.2.1肌肉骨骼傷害簡述 5
2.2.2上肢肌肉與頸肩肌肉 6
2.2.3重複性工作 7
2.3頻率及重量 8
2.4 VDT文獻 9
2.4.1桌椅高度 10
2.5 受測肌肉 10
2.6 輸送帶操作員傷害之研究方法 11
2.6.1 流行病學法 11
2.6.2 生理學法 12
2.6.3 生物力學法 12
2.6.4 主觀評量法 13


第三章 研究方法 14
3.1 假設 14
3.2實驗設計 15
3.2.1實驗假設 15
3.2.2自變數 15
3.2.3應變數 18
3.2.4 實驗設計種類及分析方法 24
3.2.5受測者 24
3.3作業項目及順序 25
3.4 實驗設備 27
3.5應變數擷取的時間點 29
3.6實驗進行步驟 29
3.7 結果分析 30
3.7.1肌電訊號均方根 31
3.7.2肌電訊號中位頻率 32

第四章 研究結果 33
4.1主觀評量 33
4.1.1主觀酸痛評量 33
4.1.2 主觀喜好度及負荷評量 43
4.2 肌電訊號 47
4.2.1肌電訊號均方根分析 48
4.2.1.1單一變異數分析 48
4.2.1.2 多變量分析(Multivariate Analysis) 60
4.2.2 肌電訊號中位頻率分析 69
4.2.2.1 單一變數分析 69
4.2.2.2多變量分析(Multivariate Analysis) 73
4.2.2.3時間對比變異數分析 81
4.3績效 92
4.3.1 單一變異數分析 93
4.3.2 多變量分析(Multivariate Analysis) 95
4.4受測者離桌緣距離 98

第五章 討論 100
5.1 主觀評量 100
5.1.1肢體酸痛主觀評量 100
5.1.2喜好度及負荷度主觀評量 101
5.2 肌電訊號 101
5.2.1肌電訊號均方根 101
5.2.2肌電訊號中位頻率 102
5.3績效 103
5.4受測者離桌緣距離 104
5.5綜合討論 104

第六章 結論及未來發展方向 106
6.1結論 106
6.2未來發展方向 106

參考文獻 107
附錄 114


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