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研究生:王定一
研究生(外文):Ting-Yi Wang
論文名稱:印刷電路板製程瑕疵檢測與分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Defect Inspection and Analysis of Printed Circuit Board Processes
指導教授:杜志挺杜志挺引用關係饒忻饒忻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Timon Chih-Ting. DuHsin Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:工業工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:瑕疵印刷電路板
外文關鍵詞:defectsPCB
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  本研究從瑕疵、背景及電路間的關係,研究瑕疵間的關係與特性,探討印刷電路板製程瑕疵檢測與分析。整個研究工作分成瑕疵辨識與製程瑕疵分析兩大部份。
  在瑕疵辨識方面,使用改進後的影像相減法,可改善影像邊界雜訊與檢驗寬放的問題,且在消除影像邊界雜訊時,也能維持瑕疵的完整性避免誤判。在印刷電路板瑕疵檢測上能檢測:洞位偏移、破洞、開路、蝕刻不足(部份)、缺角、電路漏印、毛邊、短路、洞徑不合、銅渣、缺洞、蝕刻過量(部份)等十二項瑕疵。依瑕疵、背景與電路接觸的關係,可再細分為二十五種狀況。
  在製程瑕疵分析方面,利用瑕疵擴大趨勢與瑕疵群聚的特性可偵測出製程上底片污損、露光、蝕刻不足、蝕刻過量、蝕刻設備噴嘴失常、鑽頭選用錯誤、定位錯誤等七種問題。
This research studies defect inspection and analysis of printed circuit board processes by exploring the relationship and characteristics between defects, background, and circuit. This work can be divided into defect recognition and processes defect analysis two portions.
In the area of defect recognition, using the improved method of image subtraction can improve the problems of noise of image boundary and tolerance of inspection. When removing the noise of image boundary, it keeps the completeness of defect and meanwhile avoids erroneous judgment. This study can inspect twelve kinds of defects in inner layer of PCB, namely, breakout, pin hole, open, under etch(partially), mouse bite, missing conductor, spur, short, wrong size hole, spurious copper, missing hole, and over etch(partially). Moreover, they can be divided into twenty-five kinds by the contact relationship of defects, background and circuit.
In the area of processes defect analysis, this study uses characteristics of expanding trend and clustering of defect to be able to detect art work damage, incomplete exposure, under etch, over etch, nozzle abnormal, drill bit size, and mis-registration seven kinds of process problems.
目錄

中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………………II
謝誌…………………………………………………………………………………………III
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………………IV
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………………VII
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………………X

第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1研究背景…………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2研究目的…………………………………………………………………………………2
1.3研究範疇…………………………………………………………………………………2
1.4論文大綱…………………………………………………………………………………2

第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………………4
2.1自動化檢測……………………………………………………………………………4
2.2印刷電路板製程與檢測………………………………………………………………5
2.3瑕疵種類………………………………………………………………………………6
2.4電腦視覺檢測…………………………………………………………………………7
2.4.1以影像種類分類………………………………………………………………7
2.4.2以辨識方法分類………………………………………………………………8
2.5影像相減法……………………………………………………………………………10
2.6邊界搜尋法……………………………………………………………………………12
2.6.1內部邊界搜尋法………………………………………………………………12
2.6.2外部邊界搜尋法………………………………………………………………13
2.7分群分析………………………………………………………………………………14
2.8密度分群法……………………………………………………………………………16

第三章 瑕疵辨識…………………………………………………………………………18
3.1瑕疵關係………………………………………………………………………………18
3.2待測影像與標準影像間的關係………………………………………………………20
3.2.1多出瑕疵………………………………………………………………………21
3.2.2缺少瑕疵………………………………………………………………………21
3.2.3複合型瑕疵……………………………………………………………………22
3.2.4鑽孔瑕疵………………………………………………………………………23
3.2.5瑕疵與物件連接的關係………………………………………………………24
3.2.6可辨識瑕疵的種類……………………………………………………………26
3.3影像相減法的改善……………………………………………………………………27
3.3.1改善方法(一)-膨脹、縮減標準影像……………………………………27
3.3.2改善方法(二)-保留區……………………………………………………32
3.3.3改善方法(三)-洞的檢測…………………………………………………35

第四章 瑕疵分析…………………………………………………………………………37
4.1製程問題產生的瑕疵分佈狀況………………………………………………………37
4.1.1曝光製程………………………………………………………………………38
4.1.2蝕刻製程………………………………………………………………………40
4.1.3鑽孔製程………………………………………………………………………41
4.1.4運送過程………………………………………………………………………42
4.2關聯性…………………………………………………………………………………44
4.3群聚分析………………………………………………………………………………45
4.4趨勢分析………………………………………………………………………………47
4.4.1干擾型態………………………………………………………………………47
4.4.2擴大趨勢………………………………………………………………………50
4.4.3搜尋法則………………………………………………………………………52
4.4.4瑕疵與物件接觸的關係………………………………………………………53
4.5製程問題分析…………………………………………………………………………55


第五章 印刷電路板瑕疵分析系統………………………………………………………57
5.1瑕疵樣本製作…………………………………………………………………………61
5.2樣本辨識………………………………………………………………………………67
5.2.1讀取標準設計檔資料…………………………………………………………67
5.2.2辨識瑕疵………………………………………………………………………70
5.2.3尋找瑕疵群聚…………………………………………………………………71
5.3瑕疵資訊轉製程資訊…………………………………………………………………76
5.4系統表現………………………………………………………………………………77

第六章 結論與未來展望………………………………………………………………79
6.1結論……………………………………………………………………………………79
6.2未來展望………………………………………………………………………………80

參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………………81
[Chin et al. 1982]Chin, R. T. and Harlow, C. A., 1982, “Automated visual inspection: a survey”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. Pam-4, No. 6, pp. 557-573.[David 1978]David T. Lee, 1978, “A computerized automatic inspection system for complex printed thick film patterns”, SPIE-Appl. Electron. Imaging Syst. 143, 172-177.[Emanuel 1984]Emanuel Bin-Num, “Automatic optical inspection focuses on defects”, Electron. Packag. Prod. Apr. 1984, 82-87.[Ester et al.1996]M. Ester, H.-p. Kriegel, J. Sander, and X. Xu. “A density-based algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases.”, In Proc. 1996 Int. Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining(KDD’96), pp. 226-231, Portland, OR, Aug. 1996.[Han et al. 2001]Han, Jiawei, 2001, “Data mining: concepts and techniques”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 355-393.[Madhav et al. 1996]Madhav Moganti, Fikret Ercal, Cihan H. Dagli, and Shou Tsunekawa, 1996, “Automatic PCB Inspection Algorithms: A Survey”, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol.63, No. 2, March, pp. 287-313,1996.[Newman et al. 1995]Newman, T. S. and Jain, A. K., 1995, “A survey of automated visual inspection”, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 61, No. 2, March, pp. 231-262.[Rao 1996]Rao, A. R., 1996, “Future directions in industrial machine vision: a case study of semiconductor manufacturing applications", Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 14, pp. 3-19.[Robert et al. 1984]Robert E. Bible and Robert E. Bible, Jr., Oct. 1984,”Automated optical inspection of printed circuit boards”, Test Meas. World, 208-213.[Sonka et al. 1998]Milan Sonka, Vaclav Hlavac, Roger Boyle, 1998, ”Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision”, Second Edition, PWS Publishing, 142-143.[Wu et al. 1996]Wen-Yen Wu, Mao-Jiun J. Wang, and Chih-Ming Liu, 1996,”Automated Inspection of Printed Circuit Boards Through Machine Vision”, Computers in Industry Vol. 28, 103-111.[呂 2000]呂正欽, 印刷電路板工業, March 2000, 工業簡訊, 第三十卷, 第三期 (URL).[web page]; <URL: http://www.moeaidb.gov.tw/method/indmag/8903/890306.htm>.[Accessed 15 April 2001].[姚 2000]姚進旺, June 2000,「應用愚巧法於自動化檢測與統計製程管制整合性系統之開發」, 國立成功大學工業管理研究所碩士論文。
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