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研究生:黃奕偉
研究生(外文):Yi-Wei Huang
論文名稱:ADHD學齡兒童的母親對ADHD學齡兒童特定行為的歸因與教養行為的關聯性
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship Between the Attributions for Child''s Specific Behavior and Parenting Styles in Mothers of School-Aged Children with ADHD
指導教授:梁培勇梁培勇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Yung Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:歸因注意力缺陷過動症教養行為
外文關鍵詞:parenting behaviorattributionADHD
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摘 要
本研究試圖從歸因理論普遍模式(general model of the attribution field)的內涵,探討ADHD學齡兒童的母親對ADHD學齡兒童特定行為的歸因與教養行為的關聯性。研究中安排兩組受試者,一組為初次診斷為ADHD兒童的母親,簡稱初診組,共取28名;一組為有參與ADHD家長成長團體經歷的母親,簡稱經驗組,共取28名。本研究藉由兩版(A版和B版)歸因腳本與教養行為量表的使用,欲探討兩組受試者面對ADHD兒童的症狀(Inattentive-Overactive;簡稱IO)行為與利社會(Prosocial;簡稱PRO)行為時,在各個歸因向度(內外性、控制性、穩定性)的評量與教養行為的選擇,是否有差異存在?並探討歸因向度與教養行為之間的關係。
研究結果顯示,當受試者面對IOA(踢到東西的行為)的事件時,相較於經驗組而言,初診組較傾向認為IOA行為是孩子個人可以控制的行為,兩組皆傾向認為IOA行為是兒童的內在導因所致,在穩定性的歸因評估皆傾向保持中性歸因。當受試者面對IOB(干擾行為)的事件時,相較於經驗組而言,初診組較傾向認為IOB行為是孩子個人可以控制的行為,兩組皆傾向認為IOB行為是兒童的內在導因所致,皆傾向作出穩定性高的歸因。當受試者面對PROA(協助行為)的事件時,相較於初診組而言,經驗組較傾向認為PROA行為是孩子個人可以控制的行為,在內外性、穩定性的歸因向度,兩組則傾向保持中性歸因。當受試者面對PROB(禮讓行為)的事件時,在內外性、控制性、穩定性等歸因向度,兩組皆傾向保持中性歸因。在教養行為方面,不論就IO事件或PRO事件,兩組受試者在各個教養類型的評估皆無差異。最後進行的典型相關分析顯示,並未發現歸因向度與教養類型兩者的相關達顯著水準。
由以上的資料分析結果,筆者建議日後研究應建立歸因腳本間的複本信度,或請受試者填寫所有歸因腳本,並且針對每一歸因事件進行可能性評估。另外,亦需增加樣本人數,以確保研究假設的驗證。
Abstract
This research tried trying to study on the relationship between the attributions for child’s specific behavior and parenting styles in mothers of school-aged children with ADHD by means of general model of the attribution field. There were two groups of subjects. Group 1 consisited of 28 mothers whose children were just diagnosed with ADHD, and Group 2 consisted of 28 mothers who had participated in parent growth group. By using scenarios and parenting behavior scale(version A and B), the author examined whether there is any difference between the attributions and the parenting behaviors when Group1 and Group2 face their children’s inattentive-overactive(IO) behavior and prosocial(PRO) behavior.
The results revealed that, compared with Group 2, Group 1 tended to see IOA(the behavior of kicking objects) as significantly more controllable in children. Both Group 1 and Group 2, attributed IOA to internal and moderately stable factors. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 tended to see IOB(disturbing behavior) as significantly more controllable in children. Both groups saw IOB as more internally caused, and stablely attributed in children. Compared with Group 1, Group 2 tended to see PROA(helping behavior) as controllable in children. Both groups attributed PROA to the central among internal-external and stable-unstable dimentions. As facing PROB(yield to others), both groups attributed it again the central among internal-external, controllable-uncontrollable and stable-unstable dimensions. Regarding parenting behaviors, in IO and PRO events, there is no significant difference in their evaluations of each parenting behavior type. Finally, canonical correlation analysis didn’t reveal any significant correlation between attributions and parenting behaviors.
From the above results , the author suggested that alternate form reliability in scenarios should be established in future research. Besides, the subjects should fill in all the scenarios, and evaluate the possibility of each scenario. Specially, the researchers should increase the sample size to ensure the validation of research hypotheses.
第一章 緒論1

第一節 簡介注意力缺陷/過動症3
壹、 ADHD的診斷準則3
貳、 盛行率5
參、 ADHD的成因6
肆、 ADHD症狀所衍生的問題7
第二節 教養方式的探討10
壹、 教養方式--認知層面與行為層面的釐清11
貳、 教養方式的類型11
參、 影響父母教養方式的相關因素12
肆、 教養方式的理論基礎15
第三節 歸因理論的介紹與應用18
壹、歸因理論在臨床上的應用18
貳、心理學的認知模式--歸因理論19
參、父母對ADHD行為問題的歸因型態與教養衝突的關聯性23
第四節 父母歸因與教養行為的評估方式28
壹、 父母歸因的評估方式28
貳、 教養行為的評估方式30
第五節 研究目的與研究假設32

第二章 研究方法36

第一節 研究對象36
第二節 研究工具37
第三節 研究設計41
第四節 研究程序42
第五節 資料分析42

第三章 結果44

第一節 個人基本變項之分析44
第二節 ADHD兒童的母親對ADHD兒童特定行為的歸因53
第三節 ADHD兒童的母親對ADHD兒童特定行為的教養評估60
第四節 ADHD兒童的母親對ADHD兒童特定行為的歸因與教養行為的關係63

第四章 討論與建議65

第一節 歸因評估的討論65
第二節 教養評估的討論69
第三節 綜合討論70

參考文獻72
附 錄
附錄一 問卷A版87
附錄二 問卷B版(歸因事件部份)93
附錄三 口述指導語94

表目錄
表1 教養行為量表之四大類型39
表2 ADHD男童的母親基本資料(以A版問卷為主)45
表3 ADHD男童與家庭基本資料(以A版問卷為主)47
表4 ADHD男童的母親基本資料(以B版問卷為主)50
表5 ADHD男童與家庭基本資料(以B版問卷為主)52
表6 兩組受試者面對IOA時,在各個歸因向度評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗55
表7 兩組受試者面對IOA時,在各個歸因向度歸因導向之顯著性考驗55
表8 兩組受試者面對IOB時,在各個歸因向度評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗57
表9 兩組受試者面對IOB時,在各個歸因向度歸因導向之顯著性考驗57
表10 兩組受試者面對PROA時,在各個歸因向度評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗58
表11 兩組受試者面對PROA時,在各個歸因向度歸因導向之顯著性考驗58
表12 兩組受試者面對PROB時,在各個歸因向度評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗60
表13 兩組受試者面對PROB時,在各個歸因向度歸因導向之顯著性考驗60
表14 兩組受試者面對IOA時,在「處罰」類型評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗61
表15 兩組受試者面對IOB時,在「處罰」類型評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗62
表16 兩組受試者面對PROA時,在「獎勵」類型評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗62
表17 兩組受試者面對PROB時,在「獎勵」類型評估的平均數、標準差,以及平均數的差異顯著性考驗63
表18 受試者歸因向度與教養行為類型的典型相關分析摘要表
71



圖 目 錄
圖1 歸因理論的普遍模式20
圖2 研究設計圖41
圖3 典型相關分析徑路圖72
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