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研究生:黎博文
研究生(外文):Bo-Wen Li
論文名稱:二維床中氣泡行為之影像處理研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Behavior of Bubbles in a 2-D Bed Using the Image Processing Techniques
指導教授:鄧治東鄧治東引用關係
指導教授(外文):jyh-tong Teng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:類神經網路氣泡影像處理
外文關鍵詞:bubbleimage processingneural network
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流體化床中氣泡合併及分裂現象的研究對於氣泡大小以及位置的分佈具重要意義,同時此類現象影響氣泡與流體化床物質間的氣體轉換。雖然早期就有許多學者研究流體化床內壓力擾動的情形,但是他們多著重於流體化情形以及單噴嘴的氣泡行為,只有少數研究者係討論雙噴嘴或多噴嘴間氣泡的合併及分裂現象。
本研究係以一套已經發展出來的影像分析軟體,藉CCD拍攝二維流體化床中氣泡所得的影像加以分析。此電腦程式係應用平均濾波器將攝得之影像減少其雜訊,再以類神經網路中的自組織式影射圖網路(Self-Organizing Feature Map,簡稱SOM)及反傳遞網路(Counter-Propagation Network,簡稱CPN),分別求取影像分割時將使用的臨界值,之後將影像分割以取得所需分析的參數值。研究中將計算出氣泡各項物理參數值,包含面積大小、速度、圓率、長寬比及中心位置等。
此外本研究建立一套量測實驗系統對二維床單、雙噴嘴氣泡行為進行量測分析。先將單噴嘴氣泡行為分析結果與物理現象比較,驗證出二維流體化實驗設備架設的正確性。之後再將雙噴嘴氣泡行為加以量測並進行分析結果,再將其與經驗公式比較及討論,研究結果顯示本文修改後的經驗公式較未修改之經驗公式更為符合實驗分析結果。


The phenomena of bubble coalescence and fragmentation in fluidized beds are significant factors that dominate the distribution of bubble sizes and positions in the bed; they also affect the transfer of gas between bubbles and the emulsion phase of the fluidized bed material. Although traditionally the academia obtained pressure perturbation the data related to bubbles formed by a single nozzle in a fluidized bed, few studies have reported the interaction between bubbles formed by two or more nozzles.
The purpose of this study is to use an established measurement tool and image processing technology for analyzing the image of gaseous bubbles in a 2-D column. To reduce the noise of the image, median filtering was applied to each frame obtained by the CCD. Furthermore, SOM and CPN of artificial neural network were used to find out the threshold criterion for image segmentation. Several bubble related physical parameters such as area, velocity, shape ratio, aspect ratio, and center of bubble will be determined by the image process technology.
An experimental apparatus for measuring the behavior of the bubbles formed by one and two nozzles was set up. The results obtained from the measurements and then from the image processing technology for bubbles from a single nozzle were compared with existing data for their adequacy. Subsequently those experimental results obtained from the bubbles formed by two nozzles were analyzed and then compared with the existing semi-empirical equations. The comparison turned out that those obtained from the modified semi-empirical equation have a better fit with the data than those obtained from the un-modified equation.


中文摘要····················I
英文摘要····················II
誌 謝····················IV
目 錄····················V
圖表目錄···················VII
符號說明····················IX
第一章緒論·················1
1.1研究動機···················1
1.2文獻回顧···················3
第二章理論分析···············6
2.1影像數位化··················6
2.1.1均勻矩形取樣················7
2.1.2均勻量化··················8
2.2影像增強··················10
2.2.1平均濾波法················11
2.2.2中值濾波器················12
2.3影像分割··················13
2.3.1整體臨界值················14
2.3.2適應性臨界值···············14
2.4類神經網路·················16
2.4.1自組織式影射圖網路············17
2.4.2反傳遞網路················20
2.5分割影像之儲存···············25
2.6外形影像處理················32
2.6.1內點去除·················33
2.7氣泡參數及特性···············34
2.7.1氣泡參數·················34
2.7.2氣泡特性·················40
第三章研究方法···············42
3.1實驗設備··················42
3.2實驗步驟··················46
第四章結果與討論··············48
4.1水平單噴嘴·················48
4.1.1氣泡合併行為···············48
4.1.2固定靜止床高與不同氣速之比較·······48
4.1.3固定氣速與不同靜止床高之比較·······49
4.1.4氣泡圓率及長寬比之分佈··········49
4.2水平雙噴嘴·················50
4.2.1氣泡合併現象···············50
4.2.2氣泡合併高度與噴嘴間距之比較·······50
第五章結論與展望··············69
5.1結論····················69
5.2展望····················71
參考文獻····················72


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