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研究生:蔡富全
研究生(外文):Fu-Chuan Tsai
論文名稱:超音波逆散射訊號之統計模型與應用
論文名稱(外文):The Statistical Model and Application of Ultrasonic Backscattering signal
指導教授:王士豪王士豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyh-Hau Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:醫學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:散射訊號K分佈Nakagami分佈骨質疏鬆
外文關鍵詞:K distributionscattering signalNakagami distributionOsteoporosis
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超音波逆散射統計模型已使用於許多組織之特性化上,例如肝、腎以及乳房等組織。當在sample volume內的散射子為fully developed的狀態時,其散射訊號包封之機率密度函數(PDF)會成Rayleigh分佈,但組織內大都不符合fully developed的狀態,因此便衍生許多non-Rayleigh模型更能有效的描述超音波散射訊號,例如K模型。但由於其複雜性以及參數須在一定範圍內才較具意義,在此我們使用包含更廣闊散射子條件且較簡單的Nakagami模型來描述骨骼的逆散射訊號,並與上述模型做比較。
本研究使用1 MHz超音波換能器來進行人體脛骨與跟骨測量,儲存其散射訊號以便進行進一步分析,並藉由SNR、高階moment、K參數、Nakagami參數等來作為骨質定量之參數。
透過軟體模擬可驗證統計參數與散射子濃度之關係,並且藉由血液實驗與相關文獻確認本實驗之正確性。利用摻雜玻璃細砂的洋菜假體模擬在resolution cell內含有強散射子之狀態,結果顯示SNR值大於1.91,m值大於1,其散射訊號包封之PDF為post-Rayleigh分佈。在假體實驗中,Nakagami模型相較於Rayleigh模型有較小之LSE。
量測的骨骼組織包含正常人及骨質疏鬆病患之脛骨與跟骨,結果顯示正常人SNR、m值在脛骨呈中央高、脛骨兩端與跟骨較低之趨勢。骨質疏鬆病患並無一定的趨勢,而且在脛骨兩端與跟骨之SNR值與m值均大於正常人之值,其它的參數範圍值也與正常人不同。經比較各種模型結果後,Nakagami模型對於骨質流失產生強散射子所引起之post-Rayleigh分佈有較好之描述特性。
Ultrasonic backscattered signals analyzed using statistical models have applied to characterize tissues, such as liver, kidney, breast, etc. When scatterers in the sample volume is distributed to be fully developed, the probability density function (PDF) of the backscattered envelop will be Rayleigh distribution. Most of scatterers in tissues however is not fully developed. Thus, other models ( such as K distribution ) were adopted to better describe properties of ultrasonic backscattered signals. Due to the complex nature of K distribution and that it is meaningful only in certain conditions, Nakagami model which could include more generalalized scatterer conditions and is easier was used to describe the backscattered signals of the bone tissues. Results were compared with those from previous models.
A 1 MHz transducer was used to performed measurements from human tibia and calcaneus. Backscattered signals were stored for further analysis. Parameters including such as SNR, high order moments, K parameter, Nakagami parameter were applied to quantify the bone mass. Simulation was also carried out to verify the relationship between parameters and scatterers concentration. The accuracy of the experimental method was validated by comparing current results from blood experiments with those of previous studies. Phantom made by the agar containing glass beads was to simulate the condition with strong scatterers in resolution cell. Experimental results obtained from phantoms show that the SNR of backscattered signals is above 1.91, the m parameter is above 1, and the PDF of the backscattered envelop is post-Rayleigh dostributed. Nakagami model has smaller least-square-error (LSE) than Rayleigh model obtained from phantom experiments.
Bone tissues including the tibia and calcaneus from healthy people and osteoporosis patient were then measured. The value of SNR and m parameter is larger in the middle position of the tibia than those collected from two ends and calcaneus. There is no regular distribution of either SNR or m parameters from patients. The value of SNR and m parameter from patients in the other two ends of tibia and calcaneus is always larger than those acquired from healthy people. The other parameters obtained from patients are also different from those of healthy people. Compared with all models, Nakagami model has better capability to characterize the post-Rayleigh distribution according to strong scatterers caused by the loss of bone mass.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
謝誌…..……………..…………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄..…..……………..…………………..……………………………Ⅳ
圖索引……………………..……………………………......…………Ⅶ
表索引…………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第一章緒論……………………………………………………………1
1-1 前言……………………………………………………………….1
1-2 研究背景………………………………………………………….2
1-3 文獻回顧………………………………………………………….3
1-4 研究目的………………………………………………………….5
第二章理論基礎………………………………………………………7
2-1 超音波簡介……………………………………………………….7
2-1.1 基本原理……………………………………………………..7
2-1.2 超音波衰減………………………………………………….10
2-1.3 反射與折射………………………………………………….10
2-2 超音波散射………………………………………………………12
2-2.1 單一散射子的狀況………………………………………….13
2-2.2 考慮resolution cell 內所有散射子…………………………15
2-2.3 超音波逆散射訊號統計模型………………………………..16
2-3 血液介紹………………………………………………………….23
2-4 骨骼組織介紹…………………………………………………….24
第三章實驗材料與方法………………………………………………27
3-1 實驗硬體架構…………………………………………………….27
3-2 實驗方法………………………………………………………….30
3-2.1軟體模擬………………………………………………………30
3-2.2血液實驗………………………………………………………31
3-2.3假體實驗………………………………………………………32
3-2.4骨骼實驗………………………………………………………35
3-3 散射訊號處理…………………………………………………….35
3-3.1散射區間判定…………………………………………………36
3-3.2參數計算………………………………………………………39
第四章實驗結果與討論………………………………………………41
4-1 軟體模擬………………………………………………………….41
4-2 血液實驗………………………………………………………….46
4-3 假體實驗………………………………………………………….52
4-4 人體骨骼實驗…………………………………………………….58
4-4.1正常人實驗結果………………………………………………58
4-4.2骨質疏鬆病患實驗結果………………………………………64
4-4.3正常人與骨質疏鬆病患的實驗結果之比較…………………71
第五章結論與未來展望………………………………………………73
5-1 結論……………………………………………………………….73
5-2 未來與展望……………………………………………………….75
參 考 文 獻……………………………………………………………76
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