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研究生:翁明麟
研究生(外文):Ming-Lin Weng
論文名稱:橋墩上導流裝置變化對橋墩局部沖刷之影響
論文名稱(外文):Influence of Various Diversion Devices Added to Bridge Pier upon Local Scour
指導教授:蘇重光
指導教授(外文):Chong-Guang Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:土木及水利工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:橋墩局部沖刷導流裝置
外文關鍵詞:bridge pierlocal scourdiversion device
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  橋墩周圍的局部沖刷,是造成橋墩基礎毀壞的主因之一。本研究於橋墩上加裝不同型式之導流裝置,期能降低墩前向下射流對河床面直接沖擊的力量,減小局部沖刷之規模,以提高橋樑之安全性。研究參酌了Kumar等學者對於橋墩上加設裝置的研究,設計四種不同型式之導流槽,於固定渠床坡度(S=0.01)、河床質中值粒徑(d50=0.9mm)之條件下,改變四種水流條件,進行清水流沖刷試驗。結果顯示,導流裝置確實能有效地減緩沖刷深度及體積。其中以型式B之導流槽對於橋墩周圍局部沖刷之減小有最佳之效果;至於橋墩下游沖刷之減緩則以型式A為最佳之選擇。型式A之導流裝置為尾端挑起角度最大者,其次為型式B,型式C再次之,型式D則無挑起角度之設計。
  The local scour around the bridge pier is one of the major causes of pier failure. This study involves various diversion devices that are attached to the body of the pier to mitigate the impact of the downward flow before the nose of the pier, so that the scope of the local scour may be reduced while the safety of the bridge is enhanced. The study made reference to the research of Kumar et al. about the attached devices on the pier, and used four kinds of diversion devices in the clear-water hydraulic tests under four flow conditions with fixed channel bed slope (S=0.01) and median particle size of bed material (d50=0.9mm). The results show that the diversion devices definitely can reduce the scour depth and the volume of the scour hole. Among the four kinds of diversion devices, Type B is the best as to the mitigating effect on the local scour around the pier. As to the scour downstream of the pier, Type A performs most favorably. Type A diversion device features a largest deflection angle at its end. The ones with lesser angles are Type B and Type C. Type D has no deflection angle at all.
目 錄
頁次
符號說明 ……………………………………………………….……. Ⅰ
摘要 ………………………………………………………………….. Ⅵ
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………….. Ⅶ
表目錄 ……………………………………………………………….. Ⅷ
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………………..… Ⅸ
第一章緒論 ……………………………………………………….… 1
1.1前言 …………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 文獻回顧 ………………………………………………...……. 1
1.2.1 一般研究 ………………………………………………… 1
1.2.2 國外加裝置之相關研究 ……………………………….... 2
1.2.3 國內加裝置之相關研究 ……………………………….... 4
1.3 研究目的 …………………………………………………….... 5
第二章橋墩局部沖刷機制 …………………………………………. 7
2.1流經圓柱形橋墩周圍之流況 ………………………………… 7
2.2橋墩周圍泥砂之顆粒運移 ……………………………..……. 9
2.3橋墩局部沖刷之一般特性 ………………………………….. 11
第三章理論分析 ………………...………………………………… 16
3.1沿壁沖射流理論 ………………………………..…………… 16
3.2因次分析 ……………………………………….……………. 22
第四章水工模型試驗 ……...……………………………………… 28
4.1試驗目的 ………………………………………………..…… 28
4.2試驗設備與佈置 ……………………………….……………. 28
4.2.1 試驗流槽 ……………………………..………………… 28
4.2.2 試驗佈置 ……………………………………………….. 29
4.2.3 流量狀況 ……………………………………………….. 30
4.3試驗模型之設計 ………………………………….…………. 31
4.4試驗河床質之選定 …………………………..……………… 33
4.5水工試驗條件及其一覽表 ………………………………….. 34
4.6試驗儀器 …………………………………………………….. 34
4.7試驗步驟 ………………………………………..…………… 35
4.7.1 橋墩模型之安置及試驗河床質之鋪設 ……………….. 35
4.7.2 試驗流量之控制 ……………………………………….. 37
4.7.3 平衡狀態之判定 ……………………………………….. 37
4.7.4 河床沖淤剖面之量測與繪圖 ………………………….. 38
第五章結果分析 ………………………………………...………… 39
5.1試驗結果 ………………………………………..…………… 39
5.1.1 橋墩周圍局部沖刷之最大平衡沖刷深度( ) ……...…. 39
5.1.2 橋墩墩前之平衡沖刷深度( ) ………………………… 40
5.1.3 沖刷坑總體積 ……………………………..…………… 41
5.1.4 橋墩周圍沖刷坑體積 ………………………………….. 42
5.2迴歸分析之結果 …………………………………………….. 44
5.2.1 挑水角度 之定義 …………………………..…………. 44
5.2.2  之定義 ………………………………….……………. 46
5.2.3  與 迴歸分析之結果 ……………………..………… 47
5.3局部沖淤分佈的觀察 ……………………………………….. 48
5.4橋墩墩後沖淤之分析 ……………………………………….. 49
5.4.1 墩後沖刷坑之最大平衡沖刷深度( ) ………..……….. 55
5.4.2 墩後沖刷坑體積 …………………………..…………… 56
5.4.3 墩後沖刷面積 ………………………………………….. 57
5.5各型式導流裝置對沖刷之減緩效果 ……………………..… 57
5.5.1 局部沖刷最大平衡沖刷深度減緩率 ……….…………. 58
5.5.2 局部沖刷墩前平衡沖刷深度減緩率 ……..…………… 59
5.5.3 沖刷坑總體積減緩率 ……………………….…………. 61
5.5.4 橋墩周圍沖刷坑體積減緩率 ………………………….. 62
5.6  導流裝置之效果與前人研究之比較 ……………………….. 63
第六章結論與建議 ………………………………………...……… 66
6.1結論 ……………………………………….…………………. 66
6.1.1 試驗結果討論 …………………………..……………… 66
6.1.2 導流裝置之功用 ……………………….………………. 67
6.2建議 ……………………………………………..…………… 68
參考文獻 ……………………………………………...……………… 69
參考文獻
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