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研究生:劉文科
論文名稱:利用機械延伸改變聚丙烯的結晶度與物性
論文名稱(外文):The Modification of Crystallinity and PhysicalProperties on Polypropylene by the MachineDrawing Process
指導教授:丁幸一
指導教授(外文):Hsing-Yie Ting
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:機械延伸加工聚丙烯聚丙烯結晶度聚丙烯物性拉伸比加熱延伸電子掃瞄式顯微鏡X光繞射
外文關鍵詞:MachineDrawing ProcessPolypropyleneCrystallinity of PPPhysical Properties of PPDraw ratioHeating drawingSEMXRD
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摘 要
本論文研究PP/PE block copolymers 、PP/PE random copolymers 、isotactic homopolymers等三種不同結構的PP,在常溫及加熱程序中機械延伸,其結晶度及物性的變化。
試樣經單螺桿壓出機製造而得,再利用拉力機、熱風槍、溫度計及玻璃加熱裝置,改變溫度和延伸倍率等條件,製得二次加工試樣。這些試樣以XRD、DSC、SEM等儀器測量結晶度、熔點及外觀變化。
使用XRD來測量試樣的結晶度,同時需要製作非結晶試樣以供參考,而這些XRD的繞射圖形除了可定性外,亦可定量(指結晶度而言)。試樣於常溫經機械延伸後,結晶度有明顯的提高;而改變加熱條件下機械延伸,結晶度提高的更明顯,但在接近熔點附近時會急速下降。
另外亦使用DSC來測量結晶熔點(Tm),研究發現越往高倍延伸及越高溫加熱條件下延伸時,DSC所量測的曲線會越寬平化,甚至有分裂峰的存在,這證明不完全結晶的發生。
而在SEM方面,亦可比較出試樣在延伸前及經常溫與加熱下延伸後,表面分子束排列的差異;試樣經過延伸處理後,表面分子束會沿著延伸軸向方向規則排列,確實證明結晶度可以用延伸加工法提高。

ABSTRACT
This a dissertation research PP/ PE block copolymers, PP/ PE random copolymers, the isotactic homopolymers etc. for the PP of three of different structure, at the normal temperature and heat procedure inside machine extension, its crystallize degree and physical property variety.
Sample of get were prepared through single screw extensionmeter, the secondary sample make of use of and universal testing machine, hot breeze gun, thermometer and glass heater to equip, change the temperature and extension times rate etc. These to measur the kind with the XRD, DSC, the SEM etc. instrument measure and crystallize degree, the melting point and the external appearance change.
Usage XRD to measur the crystallize degree of the kind, need to be manufactured of amouphous to provide reference at the same time, however the to eithe measur to physical property, or measur amount. The sample in the normal temperature through the machine after the extension, crystallize the degree have the obvious exaltation; and change heat term bottom machine extension, crystallize degree increase of more obviously, but at near to melting point nearby of rapid descent.
Use the DSC as well separately to measure to crystallize of melting point( Tm), discover toward high extend of times and high temperature while heat the term bottoming to extend, DSC the curve of measurement while even of peak breadth, even have to split up the esse of the peak, this certificate incompletely crystallize of occurence.
However at the SEM aspect, may also compare out the kind at before extending and at after that of through the normal temperature and heated extension, the difference that surface numerator sheaf arrange, and try the kind through the extension after handled, surface molecular sheaf while along extension stalk to direction rule arrange, assuredness prove and crystallize the degree can use extension to process the method exaltation.

目 錄
摘要………………………………………………………………………….I
Abstract…………………………………………………………………….II
縮寫對照表………………………………………………………………….III
目錄………………………………………………………………………… IV
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………….VI
表目錄…………………………………………………………………….…X
第1章簡介………………………………………………………………1
第2章實驗………………………………………………………………4
2-1 實驗儀器……………………………………………….………….….4
2-2 實驗藥品………………………………………………….……….….5
2-3 實驗方法……………………………………………………………...6
2-3-1 試樣的製作……………………………………………………..6
2-3-1-1 聚丙烯(PP)試樣的製作…………………………...6
2-3-1-2 非結晶(Amorphous)試樣的製作…………………..7
2-3-2常溫下機械延伸的試驗方法…………………………………….8
2-3-3加熱條件下機械延伸的試驗方法…………………..………….9
2-4 試樣的測定…………………………….………….……...………..10
2-4-1 XRD的結晶度測定方法……………………….………………..10
2-4-2 DSC的熔點測定方法…………………….……………………..11
第3章結果與討論………………………………………………………12
3-1 常溫下延伸……………………………………………………….....12
3-2 加熱處理部分……………………………………………………....15
3-3 結果數據與圖形………………………………………………….....18
3-3-1初始料測定……………………………………………………......18
3-3-2未加熱測定……………………………………………………......18
3-3-3 加熱處理後之測定………………………………………….......21
3-3-4結果圖形…………………………………………………………....24
第4章結論………………………………………………………………46
附錄A理論…………………………………………………………………..48
A-1 聚結晶度改良…………………………………………………….....48
A-2聚丙烯的分子構造與結晶構造……………………………………....50
A-3 DSC的基本原理………………………………………………........59
A-4 XRD的基本原理……………………………………………..........60
A-5 SEM的基本原理…………………………………………………......62
附錄B 數據資料…………………………………………………………….64
附錄C實驗圖表………………………………………………………………71
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………….85

參考文獻
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