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研究生:陳怡寧
研究生(外文):Louise Yi-ning Chen
論文名稱:蘭斯登‧休斯「疲倦藍調」與「好衣服賣猶太人」中種族定位與藍調之關係
論文名稱(外文):Racial Identity and the Blues in Langston Hughes's The Weary Blues and Fine Clothes to the Jew
指導教授:蕭笛雷
指導教授(外文):Raphael J. Schulte
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:雙重意識定位美國人黑人原始主義藍調
外文關鍵詞:double-consciousnessidentityAmericanblackprimitivismblues
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在1920年代美國的哈林復興運動中(the Harlem Renaissance),蘭斯登‧休斯(Langston Hughes)是一位重要人物。休斯和其他黑人一樣,面臨了雙重意識的難題(double-consciousness),我以他的三個作品為重點:《疲倦藍調》(The Weary Blues)、〈黑人藝術家和種族高山〉(“The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”)、《好衣服賣猶太人》(Fine Clothes to the Jew),來探討他對雙重意識的看法,其中他的文章〈黑人藝術家和種族高山〉扮演橋樑的角色,串聯這兩本詩集。雙重意識之觀念乃由都柏(W. E. B. Du Bois)首先提出,這是所有黑人作家共同面臨的難題,對一個黑人而言,要成為一「美國人」,意謂著他必須透過白人的眼光和原始主義(primitivism)來看待自己,而作一位真正的「黑人」,則表示他得以展現獨特自我和種族原貌,換句話說,在雙重意識的難題中,黑人必須在呈現自我(representations of self)和呈現黑人既定形象(representation of blackness fixed by white audiences)之間尋找出路。
    我認為在休斯這三件作品中,他對雙重意識的態度有一漸進式的轉變。在《疲倦藍調》中,他的定位模糊兩可,搖擺不定,他的詩一方面提倡黑人的團結、聯合,高舉其歷史成就,另一方面,對黑人的描繪卻仍難逃原始主義的樣板(stereotype),於是他的作品隱約與白人讀者的品味妥協。然而,在〈黑人藝術家和種族高山〉中,休斯開始認同黑人無產階級的文化,與他們聯合陣線,(其文化在黑人中產階級眼中可謂「民族之恥」),休斯此時已經擁有階級意識(class-consciousness),可惜他所呈現的黑人平民仍帶有原始主義的陰影。一直到《好衣服賣猶太人》,休斯才展現出真實的黑人大眾文化,他採用藍調的寫實傳統,顛覆了白人對黑人所賦予的刻板印象。所以,當他揚棄作一個原始主義中的「美國人」,而選擇去認同藍調中真實描繪的黑人時,他的定位便清楚呈現了。休斯認同黑人無產階級和藍調傳統,以此為基礎,在1920年代創造了一種新的文學典型。

Langston Hughes was an important figure in the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s’ America. Like other blacks, he faced the dilemma of double-consciousness. My thesis focuses on his attitude toward dual-identity in The Weary Blues, “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” and Fine Clothes to the Jew. His essay plays a significant role as a bridge between the two books of poetry. Created and defined first by W. E. B. Du Bois, double-consciousness was a problem of identity confronted by black writers and artists. For a black, being an “American” means to see his self through the eyes of the whites and the veil of primitivism; while being a black means to express his individuality and racial reality. In other words, in double-consciousness, the blacks had to “negotiate between representations of self, and representations of blackness fixed in the minds of audience accustomed to white caricatures” (Krasner 9).
In my discussion, I argue that there is a progressive change in Hughes’s attitude toward double-consciousness. In The Weary Blues, Hughes is ambiguous about his identity. On the one hand, he declares black solidarity, unity, and achievement. On the other hand, in his portrait of the blacks, he cannot escape the stereotypes of primitivism. His poetry implies a compromise with the white audience. However, in “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” Hughes begins to identify with the black proletariat, whose culture was a “vulgar secret shame” in the eyes of the black middle class. Despite his class-consciousness, Hughes’s presentation of the black masses is still in the shadow of primitivism. Not until Fine Clothes to the Jew does Hughes present a realistic portrait of the black masses. In the naturalistic tradition of the blues, Hughes’s presentation of the black proletariat subverts the white primitive stereotype and poetical framework. Therefore, his identity becomes clearer, when he chooses not to be an “American” in primitivism but to be a black in blues realism. Standing with the black proletariat and the blues tradition, Hughes’s poetry becomes a literary model in the 1920s.

Introduction………………………………………………………………1
Chapter One:
The Weary Blues: Hughes’s Anxiety About Double-Consciousness ……………14
Chapter Two:
“The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”:
A Turning Point from “American” to Black ……………………………………..40
Chapter Three:
Fine Clothes to the Jew: Establishment of Black Identity ……………………….57
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………94
Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………98

Adell, Sandra. Double-Consciousness/Double Bind: Theoretical Issues in Twentieth-Century
Black Literature. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1994.
Berry, Faith. Introduction. Good Mourning Revolution: Uncollected Writings of Langston Hughes. Ed. Faith Berry. Toronto: Citadel, 1992. xix-xxi.
Brown, Sterling A.. A Son’s Return: Selected Essays of Sterling A. Brown. Ed. Mark A. Sanders Boston: Northeastern UP, 1996.
Charters, Samuel. “The Poetry of the Blues.” Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader. Ed. Steven C. Tracy. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1999. 352-360.
Chinitz, David. “Rejuvenation through Joy: Langston Hughes, Primitivism, and Jazz.” American Literary History 9 (1997): 60-78.
Davis, Angela Y. Blues Legacies and Black Feminism. New York: Pantheon, 1998.
Dickinson, Emmett, “Is There Harm in Singing the Blues?” Appendix B. Early Downhome Blues: a Musical and Cultural Analysis. By Jeff Todd Titon. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1994. 287-88.
Gates, Henry Louis and Anthony Appiah, eds. Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad, 1993. 120-134.
Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 1940.
---. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Eds. Arnold Rampersad and David Roessel. New
York: Vintage, 1994.
---. Fine Clothes to the Jew. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927.
---. The First Book of Jazz. Hopewell: Ecco, 1955.
---. Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender. Ed. Christopher C. De Santis. Urbana: U of
Illinois P, 1995.
---. “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.” The Norton Anthology of African American
Literature. Eds. Henry Louis Gates and Nellie Y. McKay. New York: Norton, 1997.
1267-71.
---. The Weary Blues. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.
Keil, Charles. “Big Bobby Blue Band on Stage.” Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader.
Ed. Tracy, Steven C. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1999. 328-333.
---. Urban Blues. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966.
Krasner, David. Resistance, Parody, and Double Consciousness in African American Theatre
1895-1910. London: Macmillan, 1997.
Leggett, B. J. Larkin’s Blues: Jazz, Popular Music and Poetry. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1999.
Murray, Albert. Stomping the Blues. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.
Rampersad, Arnold. “Hughes’s Fine Clothes to the Jew.” Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Eds. Henry Louis Gates and AnthonyAppiah. New York: Amistad, 1993. 53-68.
---. The Life of Langston Hughes. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
Rowe, Mike. Chicago Blues: The City and the Music. New York: Da Capo, 1975.
Sackheim, Eric, comp. The Blues Line: A Collection of Blues Lyrics. Hopewell: Ecco, 1993.
Smith, Raymond. “Langston Hughes: Evolution of the Poetic Persona.” Langston Hughes:
Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Eds. Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah.
New York: Amistad, 1993. 120-134.
Titon, Jeff Todd. Early Downhome Blues: a Musical and Cultural Analysis. Chapel Hill: U of
North Carolina P, 1994.
Tracy, Steven C. Langston Hughes and the Blues. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1988.
---,ed. Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1999.
Wagner, Jean. Black Poets of The United States: From Paul Laurence Dunbar to Langston Hughes. Trans. Kenneth Douglas. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1973.
Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930. New
York: Pantheon, 1995.
Wintz, Cary D. Black Culture and the Harlem Renaissance. College Station: Texas A&M UP,
1996.

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