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研究生:藍清木
研究生(外文):C.M. Lan
論文名稱:不同食品成份和加熱時間對滷味雜環胺生成的影響
論文名稱(外文):Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Marinated Foods as Affected by Various Food Components and Heating Time
指導教授:陳炳輝陳炳輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):B.H. Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:雜環胺滷味加熱時間
外文關鍵詞:heterocyclic aminesHCAsmarinated foodheating Time
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雜環胺化合物 ( Heterocyclic amines,HCAs ) 為具有不飽和雙鍵的環狀有機化合物。主要生成機制可分為兩大類,第一類是由HCAs的四種前趨物:葡萄糖、胺基酸、肌酸(creatine)和肌酸酐(creatinine)經熱作用合成;第二類為直接由單一胺基酸或蛋白質經熱裂解生成。由於HCAs具有相當高的致癌性及致突變性,攝食過多的HCAs可能會對人體健康造成不良影響。本實驗的目的在於(1)調查市售滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs的含量;(2)探討添加不同醬油量,對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量的影響;(3)探討添加不同冰糖量,對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量的影響;(4)探討不同滷煮時間,對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量的影響。
結果顯示,生成HCAs的種類以滷肉生成2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (IQ)、2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx)、2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (MeIQ)、2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)、3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b] indole (Trp-P-1)、2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP)和2-amino-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b] indole (AaC)等七種HCAs最多,滷豆干生成IQ 、MeIQx、4,8-DiMeIQx、PhIP和AaC等五種HCAs,滷蛋則生成MeIQx、4,8-DiMeIQx、Trp-P-1和PhIP等四種HCAs。市售滷肉、滷蛋、滷豆干生成的HCAs總量以滷肉最多約為18.86 - 38.48 (ng/g),滷豆干次之約為6.87 — 17.59 (ng/g),滷蛋最少約為4.39 — 14.90 (ng/g)。不論滷肉、滷蛋和滷豆干,皆隨著冰糖添加量的增加,以及醬油添加量的增加,HCAs的含量有顯著增加的趨勢。且醬油的添加會較冰糖更容易促進HCAs的生成。HCAs的含量會隨著滷煮時間的增加而有上升的趨勢。
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds with unsaturated double bonds and ring structure. The major mechanism of HCAs formation can be attributed by heating of four precursors, amino acids, creatine, creatinine and sugar, or by pyrolyzing of amino acids and proteins. Previous researches have shown that some HCAs are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and the consumption of HCAs in excess may be harmful to human health. The purposes of this study were : ( 1 ) to investigate the contents of HCAs (ng/g) in marinated pork, eggs , and bean cakes in the market.; ( 2 ) to study the formation of HCAs (ng/g) in marinated pork, eggs and bean cakes in the presence of various levels of soy sauce;( 3 ) to study the formation of HCAs (ng/g) in marinated pork, eggs and bean cakes in the presence of various levels of rock candy;( 4 ) to study the change of contents of HCAs (ng/g) in marinated pork, eggs and bean cakes as affected by cooking time.
Results showed that marinated pork contain 7 HCAs, including 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (IQ)、2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx)、2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (MeIQ)、2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)、3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b] indole (Trp-P-1)、2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b] indole (AaC) .Marinated bean cake contains 5 HCAs, including IQ、MeIQx、4,8-DiMeIQx、PhIP and AaC, while marinated egg contains 4 HCAs. MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Trp-P-1 and PhIP. For the marinated food sold in the market , pork contained the highest amounts of HCAs (18.86-38.48 ng/g) , followed by bean cake (6.87-17.59 ng/g) and egg (4.39-14.90 ng/g). Incorporation of soy sauce or rock candy could facilitate HCAs formation in marinated foods, and the former played an more important role than the latter. Also, the HCAs contents in marinated foods increased along with increasing cooking time.
目 錄
頁次
第一章緒 言………………………………………………………1
第二章文獻回顧…………………………………………………3
一、雜環胺化何物的簡介與生成………………………………3
(一) 由前驅物合成的HCAs…………………………………3
(二) 直接由胺基酸或蛋白質經熱裂解生成的HCAs………7
二、HCAs的生物毒性……………………………………………7
(一) HCAs的致突變性…………………………………………7
(二) HCAs的致癌性……………………………………………8
三、HCAs的萃取純化……………………………………………8
四、HCAs的分析…………………………………………………16
五、食品中HCAs生成的影響因子………………………………19
(一) 加熱溫度對HCAs生成的影響…………………………20
(二) 加熱時間對HCAs生成的影響…………………………20
(三) 不同熱加工方法對HCAs形成的影響…………………20
(四) 食品中水含量對HCAs生成的影響……………………28
(五) 食品中脂肪含量對HCAs生成的影響………………28
六、抑制食品中HCAs生成之探討……………………………35
(一) 抗氧化劑…..……………………………………………35
(二) 葡萄糖及乳糖……………………………………………39
七、浸泡醃汁對肉品中HCAs生成的影響……………………39
第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………44
一、實驗架構圖………………………………..…………………44
二、實驗材料……………………………………………………47
(一) 原料/添加物……………………………………………47
(二) 試劑/藥品………………………………………………...47
(三) 儀器設備…………………………………………………48
三、實驗方法……………………………………………………...48
(一) 調查市售滷肉滷蛋滷豆干的HCAs含量……………….48
(二) 滷味食品加工……………………………………………49
(1) 不同醬油量……………………………………………..49
(2) 不同冰糖量……………………………………………..49
(3) 長時間滷煮對滷味及滷汁HCAs生成的影響………...50
(三) 滷味及滷汁中HCAs之萃取…………………………….50
(四) HPLC分析HCAs之條件………………………………...51
(五) HCAs的鑑定……………………………………………...52
(六) HCAs的定量……………………………………………...52
(七) 粗蛋白質測定……………………………………………53
(八) 粗脂肪測定………………………………………………54
(九) 灰分測定…………………………………………………54
(十) 水分測定…………………………………………………55
(十一) 葡萄糖測定……………………………………………55
(十二) 胺基酸分析……………………………………………55
(十三) 肌酸酐測定……………………………………………56
(十四) 統計分析………………………………………………57
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………58
一、HCAs萃取方法之評估……………………………………58
(一) HPLC分析條件…………………………………………..58
(二) 偵測極限…………………………………………………58
(三) 回收率……………………………………………………58
二、市售滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干的HCAs含量調查………………61
(一) 市售滷肉之HCAs含量…………………………………61
(二) 市售滷蛋之HCAs含量…………………………………65
(三) 市售滷豆干之HCAs含量………………………………65
三、不同醬油比例、冰糖比例及滷煮時間對滷肉HCAs
含量的影響………………………………………………….70
(一) 不同醬油比例滷煮對滷肉HCAs含量的影響………….70
(二) 不同冰糖比例滷煮對滷肉HCAs含量的影響………….75
(三) 不同滷煮時間滷煮對滷肉HCAs含量的影響………….84
四、不同醬油比例、冰糖比例及滷煮時間對滷蛋HCAs
含量的影響………………………………………………….93
(一) 不同醬油比例滷煮對滷蛋HCAs含量的影響………….93
(二) 不同冰糖比例滷煮對滷蛋HCAs含量的影響………….96
(三) 不同滷煮時間滷煮對滷蛋HCAs含量的影響………….99
五、不同醬油比例、冰糖比例及滷煮時間對滷豆干HCAs
含量的影響………………………………………………...102
(一) 不同醬油比例滷煮對滷豆干HCAs含量的影響……...102
(二) 不同冰糖比例滷煮對滷豆干HCAs含量的影響……...104
(三) 不同滷煮時間滷煮對滷豆干HCAs含量的影響……...108
六、添加滷包對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量的影響……....111
七、添加抗氧化劑對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量的影響....111
(一) 添加維生素C對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量
的影響…………………………………………………....113
(二) 添加維生素E對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量
的影響…………………………………………………...113
(三) 添加BHT對滷肉、滷蛋及滷豆干HCAs含量
的影響…………………………………………………...116
第五章 結論……………………………………………………….122
參考文獻…………………………………………………………...125
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