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研究生:杜姿慧
研究生(外文):Tu Tzu-Huei
論文名稱:優秀年輕女性排球運動員的飲食攝取及其體內抗氧化狀態與脂質過氧化之評估
論文名稱(外文):Assessment of Dietary Intake, Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxidation of Young Elite Female Volleyball Athletes
指導教授:李寧遠李寧遠引用關係鍾秀琴鍾秀琴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee Ning-YueanChung Shiow-Chyn
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:年輕女性運動員營養評估抗氧化物質抗氧化酵素脂質過氧化
外文關鍵詞:young female athletesnutritional assessmentantioxidantantioxidant enzymelipid peroxidation
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良好的飲食攝取是決定運動員運動表現與能力的關鍵,飲食攝取不適當及長期高強度的運動訓練下,可能會引發體內氧化壓力的提高。本研究以16名高中優秀女性排球運動員,其平均年齡為17.2 ± 0.8歲,身高172.7 ± 5.3 cm,體重65.8 ± 6.3 kg,並以同年齡之非運動員為對照組,利用體位測量、飲食及體能活動問卷、三天飲食紀錄、血液及尿液生化檢驗,以評估運動員飲食攝取、體內抗氧化與脂質過氧化之狀態。體位結果顯示運動員身高及體重皆顯著高於一般生,而體脂肪及三頭肌皮脂厚度則顯著較低。分析春、冬兩季之平均每日飲食營養素攝取,發現運動員單位體重熱量及蛋白質攝取顯著高於一般生,因運動員大量能量消耗,故此為必然之現象。而從體重在兩季之間無顯著改變,推測其熱量攝取符合個體所需。另外,兩組受試者在三大營養素方面,皆有脂肪攝取過高(約佔總熱量33 %)及醣類攝取過低(約佔總熱量54 %)之情況,且平均維生素E、B6、鈣、鐵及鋅攝取低於我國RDNA建議量,顯示其對食物選擇能力較差。分析運動員體內在休息狀態下之抗氧化狀態,其血漿中β-胡蘿蔔素及維生素C濃度與非運動員間無差異,而全血中總麩胱、血漿中視網醇及維生素E濃度則顯著高於一般生,可能因飲食攝取量較高及訓練產生向上調節所致。將其與參考正常範圍相較發現,兩組受試者血漿中抗氧化物質濃度呈現正常偏低之現象。紅血球中麩胱甘過氧化、超氧化物歧化活性、血漿中丙二醛濃度及總抗氧化能力在兩者之間皆無差異,推測長期激烈運動訓練會刺激運動員體內代謝系統產生適應現象,使其維持一恆定狀態。從飲食攝取不適當及血漿中抗氧化物質偏低之現象,建議實施營養教育,改善其飲食習慣與行為及體內營養素狀況,以期運動員能有更佳之運動表現。
Adequate nutrients intake is critical for athletes in sports performance and ability, and it may increase oxidative stress if inadequate nutrients intake during long-term, high intensity of exercise training. The purpose of this study was to assess the average dietary intake, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in sixteen young elite female volleyball athletes (17.2 ± 0.8 yr, 172.7 ± 5.3 cm and 65.8 ± 6.3 kg) by anthropometric measurement, dietary and physical activity questionnaires, three-day dietary records, biomedical analysis in blood and urine, and non-athletes will be chosen as control. Height and weight were significantly higher, and body fat and triceps skinfold were significantly lower in athletes than non-athletes. The average dietary nutrients intake in spring and winter by using dietary records found that, the energy intake per body weight and protein intake of athletes was significantly higher than non-athletes because of high-energy expenditure in athletes. It was no significantly change in body weight within all subjects during two seasons, suggested the energy intake fitting the needed. The percentage of macronutrients of total energy was high in fat (33% of total calories) and low in CHO (54% of total calories) intake in all subjects, and average vitamin E, B6, calcium, iron and zinc intake were below RDNA, meaning that the ability was not well in selecting foods. The resting blood total GSH, retinol and α-tocopherol concentration were higher in athletes, which may due to higher dietary intake and adjusted up-regulation by intensive exercise training, but β-carotene and vitamin C concentration in plasma were not significantly different between two groups (lower tendency but still within referential normal value). RBC glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activity, plasma malondialdehyde concentration and total antioxidant capacity, however, were not significantly different between two groups, presumed that it was adjusted in metabolic system in athletes induced by intensive exercise training and maintained homeostasis status. It is suggested to put into practice of nutritional education, modify dietary behavior, to improve nutritional status and exercise performance of athletes.
中文摘要 …………………………………………………………. I
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………… III
誌謝 …………………………………………………………... V
目錄 …………………………………………….……………..… VII
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………………XI
表目錄 …………………………………………………………… XII
縮寫表…………………………………………………………. XIII
第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………………….1
一、研究動機 …………………………………………………. 1
二、研究目的 ……………………………………………… 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ………………………………………………… 4
一、營養評估之方法 ………………………………………… 4
(一)人體測量 …………………………………………… 4
(二)飲食攝取情況 ……………………………………… 4
(三)生化方法 ………………………………………… 5
(四)臨床檢查 ………………………………………… 5
二、年輕運動員之營養攝取 ……………………………… 6
(一)年輕運動員的營養需求及飲食攝取 ……………… 6
(二)年輕女性運動員的營養問題 …………………… 14
三、運動與氧化壓力之產生 ………………………………... 15
(一)自由基之簡介 …………………………………… 15
(二)運動導致自由基生成之機制 …………………… 18
(三)抗氧化防禦系統 ………………………………… 20
(四)氧化傷害之指標 ………………………………… 27
(五)運動對抗氧化系統及脂質過氧化之影響 ………… 28
四、運動訓練與氧化壓力之調節 …………………………. 31
(一)運動訓練對體內抗氧化系統之影響 …………… 31
(二)運動訓練對體內脂質過氧化狀況之影響 ……… 33
五、抗氧化物質缺乏對運動訓練時氧化壓力之影響 …… 34
第三章 材料與方法 …………………………………………… 40
一、研究對象 ……………………………………………… 40
二、研究設計 ……………………………………………… 40
三、實驗流程 ……………………………………………… 41
四、實驗項目與分析方法 …………………………………… 42
(一)基本資料及體位測量 …………………………… 42
(二)飲食習慣與體能活動問卷調查 ……………… 44
(三)飲食攝取紀錄 …………………………………… 44
(四)營養素分析 ………………………………………… 46
(五)身體活動狀況 …………………………………… 48
(六)血液生化分析 ……………………………………… 48
(七)尿液常規檢查 …………………………………… 62
五、統計分析 ………………………………………………… 62
第四章 結果 …………………………………………………... 63
一、體位狀況 ………………………………………………… 63
二、飲食習慣與健康狀況 …………………………………… 63
三、飲食營養素攝取狀況 …………………………………… 63
(一)熱量及三大營養素攝取 ………………………… 64
(二)抗氧化維生素攝取 ……………………………… 66
(三)能量代謝相關之維生素B群攝取 …………… 68
(四)礦物質攝取 …………………………………… 70
四、氧化壓力相關之血液生化值 ………………………… 71
(一)抗氧化物質濃度 ………………………………… 71
(二)抗氧化酵素濃度 ………………………………… 72
(三)氧化壓力狀況 …………………………………… 72
五、血液肝腎功能 …………………………………………… 73
六、尿液常規檢查 …………………………………………… 74
第五章 討論 …………………………………………………… 85
一、體位測量 ………………………………………………… 85
二、熱量及三大營養素攝取分析 ………………………… 86
(一)熱量攝取 ……………………………………… 86
(二)三大營養素攝取 ………………………………… 87
(三)微量營養素攝取 ……………………………… 90
(四)年輕女性排球運動員的營養問題 …………… 93
三、運動員休息狀態下氧化壓力之評估 ………………. 95
(一)體內抗氧化系統評估…………………………… 95
(二)體內脂質過氧化評估 ……………………… 97
四、 抗氧化物質之飲食攝取及其體內抗氧化狀態 ………… 98
第六章 結論與建議 …………………………………………… 100
一、結論 ……………………………………………………. 100
二、建議 ……………………………………………………. 101
參考文獻 …………………………………………………… 102
附錄一、受試者同意書 ………………………………………… 114
附錄二、基本飲食及藥物問卷 ………………………………… 115
附錄三、體能活動及訓練問卷 ………………………………… 120
附錄四、飲食紀錄表 …………………………………………… 121
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