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研究生:王健銘
研究生(外文):Gilbert Wang Jian-ming
論文名稱:轉碼之社會心理功能研究:以2000年總統大選為例
論文名稱(外文):The Sociopsychological Functions of Code-switching: A Case Study of the Presidential Campaign in Taiwan, 2000
指導教授:許洪坤許洪坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joseph H. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:轉碼社會心理功能社會心理動機總統大選情境型轉碼隱喻型轉碼會話型轉碼
外文關鍵詞:Code-switchingSociopsychological functionsSociopsychological motivationsPresidential campaignSituational code-switchingMetaphorical code-switchingConversational code-switching
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中文摘要
在台灣,轉碼已成為一種非常普遍的語言現象。許多的研究是從句法上、語意上、或者是語用的觀點上著手研究轉碼之語言現象,但卻沒有一個研究是完全從社會心理的觀點去研究它。因此,本論文將藉由探討以下三個問題,來瞭解 “為何候選人要轉碼?”之因素。 這三個問題是 (一)、在總統大選時,使用轉碼的社會心理功能為何? (二)、聽眾是否能夠辨認、體會轉碼功能背後所隱藏的意圖?換句話說,聽眾是否瞭解候選人為何要使用轉碼? (三)、聽眾對候選人使用轉碼的反應為何?
在分析過轉碼的社會心理功能後,我們發現有六種類型的轉碼,其中總共包含了34種的功能。這六型是情境型轉碼、隱喻型轉碼、會話型轉碼、情境 - 隱喻型轉碼、情境 - 會話型轉碼,以及 隱喻 - 會話型轉碼。從上述研究結果中,我們發現不同類型之轉碼可以被合併,以對聽眾造成更大、更多的語言或社會心理上的效果,例如,重複或諷刺。另外,一條轉碼也不僅僅只限於傳達一個功能;相反地,在此論文中,同時傳達兩個功能的轉碼也頭一次被發現, 例如,重述及修辭上的效果。然而,隱喻 - 會話型轉碼這一類型所傳達的功能卻被使用的最多,因為它們能製造最多的利潤。
另外,本論文使用了問卷調查法,以求能更深入地瞭解為何候選人要轉碼之因。從統計結果來看,我們發現候選人所使用的轉碼功能,的確可以被聽眾所辨識出來(在267份有效問卷中,有百分之七十一的聽眾可以瞭解為何候選人要轉碼)。
本研究也從經濟學借了成本與報酬的概念,用來解釋與預測為何候選人要轉碼之目的性意義與成效分析。另外,從本論文所討論的資料中,我們也比較了三位主要候選人所使用的轉碼功能之異同。最後,本論文也再一次確認了一個事實,就是持雙語者,例如此三位候選人,在腦中應具有“計量衡”的概念,它是一種天生的或內化的心像,能夠使候選人用來辨認是否被包蘊的語言比較顯著,或比較不顯著,進而判別在何種場合中或對某些說話對象,應使用何種語言。
綜言之,候選人轉碼的唯一也是最重要的原因,就是要從台灣這個語言社區中,獲得不同族群選民的支持。而他們在使用轉碼前所做的成本與報酬的評估,也的確幫助他們從選戰中得到了更多的支持。
ABSTRACT
Code-switching has become a very common linguistic phenomenon during the campaign in Taiwan. Many studies have been conducted from a syntactic, semantic, or pragmatic approach, but not from sociopsychological perspectives. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out “why candidates code-switch” in view of the following three objectives: (1) What are the functions of code-switching in the presidential election? (2) Can audience infer the intentions underlying the functions of code-switching? That is, do they understand why candidates code switch? and (3) What are the audiences’ reactions to candidates’ code-switching?
From the analysis of functions of code-switching, we find out that there are 6 types of code-switching, consisting of 34 functions, found in this study. The 6 types are situational code-switching, metaphorical code-switching, conversational code-switching, situational-metaphorical code-switching, situational-conversational code-switching, and metaphorical-conversational code-switching. From the findings, we can see different types of code-switching are able to be combined in order to create greater linguistic or social effects, e.g. quotation or sarcasm. In addition, one code-switching does not necessarily carry only one function. Rather, dual functions in one case are also included, e.g. reiteration and rhetorical effect. But, conversational and metaphorical switching are employed more often because they generate more profits.
A questionnaire is used to answer the thesis question─why candidates code-switch? From the statistic results, we discover that the functions of code-switching used by the candidates can be recognized and accepted by the audience (71﹪out of 267 valid subjects).
This study also borrows “cost and rewards” concept from economics in order to explain or predict why and when candidates code-switch. A comparison of the three candidates’ code-switching performance is also offered. Finally, this study also confirms candidates have a “marked metric”, which is an inborn or internalized representation enabling them to recognize if the embedded language (EL) is more or less marked or unmarked.
Overall, the only and the most important reason of why candidates code-switch is to gain more support from voters of different ethnic backgrounds in Taiwan. And their elaboration in evaluating the costs and rewards of whether or not to apply code-switching does help them obtain more support from the voters during the campaign.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………i
Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………………ii
English Abstract…………………………………………………………iv
List of Diagrams…………………………………………………………vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………vii
Table of Contents………………………………………………………viii
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1Rationale………………………………………………………1
1.2The Sociolinguistic backgrounds of Taiwan………………2
1.2.1Mandarin………………………………………………………2
1.2.2 Taiwanese………………………………………………………3
1.2.3 Language policy………………………………………………4
1.3Objectives and outline of this study……………………7
2.LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK……………9
2.1Theories of sociopsychological aspects of code-
switching…………………………………………………10
2.1.1 Speech Accommodation theory (SAT)………………10
2.1.2 Politeness Theory……………………………………11
2.1.3 The Markedness Model………………………………12
2.2Types of code-switching……………………………………13
2.2.1 Situational code-switching……………………………13
2.2.2 Metaphorical code-switching…………………………15
2.2.3 Conversational code-switching………………………17
2.3Functional approach…………………………………………18
2.4Language attitudes toward code-switching……………19
2.5A theoretical framework for this study…………………19
2.6Hypothesis……………………………………………………22
2.7Questionnaire………………………………………………22
2.7.1 Subjects’ background…………………………………23
2.7.2 Criteria for valid questionnaires………………………25
2.7.3 The content of the questionnaire………………………26
2.7.4 The design of the questionnaire……………………27
2.7.5 Procedures………………………………………….…28
2.7.6 Data analysis…………………………………………29
2.7.7 Findings………………………………………………29
2.8Definition of key terms in this study…………………30
2.8.1 Cost and rewards analysis……………………………30
2.8.2 Right and obligation sets (RO sets) and
indexicality………………………………………………31
2.8.3 Matrix language vs. embedded language……………33
3.SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF
CODE-SWITCHING…………………………………………… 34
3.1Situational code-switching…………………………38
3.2Metaphorical code-switching………………………………42
3.3Conversational code-switching……………………………59
3.4Situational - metaphorical code-switching……………75
3.5Conversational - metaphorical code-switching………79
3.6Situational - conversational code-switching…………90
3.7Summary and discussions of the code-switching
type andfunctions………………………………………94
4.CONCLUSION…………………………………………………102
4.1Conclusion…………………………………………………102
4.2Findings……………………………………………………108
4.3Significance of this study……………………………111
4.4 Suggestions for further studies………………………112
Bibliography…………………………………………………………114
Appendices……………………………………………………………122
Appendix 1: Transcription of Chen, Song, and Lian’s speeches
during the presidentialcampaign in Taiwan………122
Appendix 2: Questionnaire…………………………………………143
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