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 本論文應用三維時域有限差分法（FDTD）模擬、分析微帶線饋入矩形微帶天線。首先提出當微帶天線具有不同導體厚度時，對微帶天線特性的影響。所提出的研究設計是，藉由設定導體厚度從零到3Δz，當每增加Δz的厚度時，分別加以計算微帶天線S11(ω)及Zin(ω)的特性。模擬結果為，當增加導體厚度時，天線共振頻率會降低。因此，若省略導體厚度時，FDTD模擬結果會有少許的誤差。接著的研究是當微帶天線具有不同的介電係數er值、不同的基板高度h時，對微帶天線特性的影響。模擬結果為，當er及h增加時，天線共振頻率會降低。整體而言，改變er值對微帶天線的影響最大。 天線與微帶線之間的阻抗匹配是很重要的，當阻抗匹配時，天線與微帶線之間才有最大的功率轉移。在本論文中，利用矩形微帶天線非輻射邊緣上各位置之阻抗皆有不同的特性，調整微帶線饋入點沿著矩形微帶天線非輻射邊緣來移動，並利用FDTD分別計算各個不同饋入位置之S11(ω) 的特性。藉由觀察在主模共振頻率下，若該位置之S11(ω) 特性最好，即此饋入位置為最佳之饋入位置。在此研究中，應用FDTD分析當矩形微帶天線的長寬比為1.5時，在四種不同的天線尺寸下，分別計算出微帶線最佳饋入位置。最後根據先前分析的結論，實作微帶線饋入矩形微帶天線，可觀察出FDTD模擬結果與量測值的趨勢相當吻合。
 This study applies three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to simulate and analyze microstripline-fed rectangular patch antenna. The result shows that, by increasing the metal thickness, the resonant frequency of the patch antenna decreases. Consequently, when we use FDTD to simulate microstrip circuits, by omitting the metal thickness, it will introduce errors in the numerical calculation and affect the accuracy of the results. The effects on patch antennas with different permittivity (er) and height of substrate (h) have been investigated. The results show that the resonant frequency reduces as the height of substrate and permittivity increase. As a whole, the permittivity is the strongest factor on patch antennas when use to determine the resonant frequency. Antenna input impedance match is important to the transfer of power from a transmitter to an antenna. Maximum power transfer would not occur unless their impedance are matched. For a microstripline-fed rectangular patch antenna, impedance matching can be done by choosing different feed positions at the nonradiating edge of the patch antenna. In this study, the S11 characteristic is calculated while adjusting the microstripline along the nonradiating edge of the patch antenna to search for the optimal feed position. FDTD analysis is applied to model patch antennas for four different patch sizes while keeping Lp/Wp ratio constant. The results show good agreement between the measurement and simulation .
 第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………1 1.1研究背景………………………………………………………………1 1.2研究動機………………………………………………………………2 1.3論文架構………………………………………………………………3 第二章 時域有限差分法…………………………………………………………4 2.1有限差分法……………………………………………………………4 2.2時域有限差分法基本原理……………………………………………7 2.3空間增量的選擇……………………………………………………14 2.4時間增量與穩定度關係……………………………………………15 2.5入射波源……………………………………………………………16 2.6吸收邊界條件………………………………………………………18 2.7電腦資源的預估……………………………………………………20 2.8程式流程……………………………………………………………22 第三章 微帶電路各項參數求法…………………………………………… 25 3.1導體的處理…………………………………………………………25 3.2兩介質交接面的處理………………………………………………27 3.3source的處理………………………………………………………29 3.4傳播常數及等效介電常數及群速的計算…………………………30 3.5 Zin(w)的求法……………………………………………………31 3.6 S11(w)的求法……………………………………………………33 第四章 微帶電路各項參數求法…………………………………………… 34 4.150Ω微帶線特性分析………………………………………………35 4.2模擬微帶天線饋入矩形微帶天線…………………………………41 4.3不同導體厚度對微帶天線的影響…………………………………43 4.4不同基板介電係數εr對微帶天線的影響…………………………47 4.5不同基板高度對微帶天線的影響…………………………………49 第五章 微帶線饋入位置之最佳化分析 ……………………………………51 第六章 實作4.54 GHz矩形微帶天線…………………………………………61 第七章結論…………………………………………………………………63 參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………65 附錄收斂測試……………………………………………………………67
 [1] K.S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equation in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. ,vol. AP-14, No.3 pp. 300-307, May 1966.[2] Allen Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Artech House, Boston, London.1995.[3] A. Taflove and M. E. Brodwin, “Numerical solution of steady-state electromagnetic scattering problems using the time dependent Max-well’s equation,” IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-23, pp. 623-630, Aug. 1975.[4] Karls Kunz and Raymond J. Loebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics, pp32, CRC Press Inc., 1993[5] G. Mur, “Absorbing boundary conditions for the finite-difference approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic field equations”, IEEE Trans. Electromag Compact., vol. EMC-23, pp. 377-382, Nov. 1981.[6] Karls Kunz and Raymond J. Loebbers, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2000[7] D. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.[8] X. Zhang and K. K. Mei. “Time domain finite difference approach to the calculation of the frequency-dependent characteristics of microstrip discontinuities,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 36, No. 12, pp. 1775-1787, Dec 1988.[9] X, Zhang, J. Fang, K.K.Mei and Y.Liu “Calculation of the disperisive Characteristics of Microstrips by the Time Domain Finite Difference Method,” 1988.[10] Fang.J. and D. Xue, “ Numerical errors in the computation of impedances by FDTD method and ways to eliminate them” IEEE Microwave and Guide Wave Letters, vol. 5, No. 1, January 1995.[11] D. M. Sheen, S. M. Ali, M. D. Abouzahra and J. A. Kong, “Application of the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to the analysis of plannar microstrip circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 849-857, July 1990.[12] Tzyy-Sheng Horng, Ming-Ju Tsai, Ching-Lung Chen and Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos “The influence of metallization thickness on a microstripline-fed patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., pp. 840-843, 1994[13] J. R. James and P. S. Hall, Handbook of Microstrip Antennas, Peter Peregrius Ltd., pp 121-122.[14] M. L. Oberhart, Y. T. Lo, and R. Q. H. Lee “New simple feed network for an array module of four microstrip elements,” Electronic Lett., vol. 23, pp. 436-427, April 23, 1987.
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 1 寬頻帶H-型狀堆疊微帶天線之研究

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