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研究生:黃燕清
研究生(外文):Huang Yen Ching
論文名稱:牙科診療作業場所室內空氣品質評估
論文名稱(外文):Indoor Air Quality(IAQ)Evaluation of Dental Clinic
指導教授:洪玉珠洪玉珠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hong Yu Jue
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:牙科使用材料揮發性有機物室內空氣品質風險評估
外文關鍵詞:dental materialsVOCSIAQrisk assessment
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牙科診療作業場所所使用材料種類複雜,而且工作環境皆為室內作業,作業期間室內空氣受到使用材料特性之影響,導致直接污染的可能性很高。本研究即以牙科使用材料(簡稱牙材)中之揮發性有機物(VOCS )為主,探討作業期間其揮發性材料暴露之濃度,對室內空氣品質,及人體健康上之影響。
根據實地觀察及材料消耗量之統計數據,針對使用VOCS牙材較多之補綴科為主要研究對象。以自動連續量測法(ASM)測定一般室內空氣品質,項目包括:一氧化碳(CO)、二氧化碳(CO2)、懸浮微粒(PM10)、溫度(T)、風速(V)及室內溫溼度(RH)等。同時,採用多點氣體釋放與分析儀進行甲醛(HCHO)、二氧化碳及總揮發性有機物(TVOC)之室內平均點之多點採樣。採樣時間每天24小時連續監測共採7天,並實測現場換氣率,以了解作業場所之空氣置換次數。採樣分析結果並與國內外相關法規比較,以進行牙科診療作業室內空氣品質之評估。
於上班作業期間(8:00 ~18:00)監測所得之平均濃度HCHO為0.54(0.20)ppm遠高於建議值0.1ppm的5.4倍。CO2為1265.11(183)、1299.08(344.24)ppm大於建議值的1000ppm。TVOC達5.44(2.10)ppm,亦高於建議值3ppm達1.8倍多。室內空氣換氣率實測結果為每小時1.48次。根據上述量測評估之結果,選擇室內空氣品質較差之時段(週一15:30~17:30)以TO-15進行室內揮發性有機物質之定性定量評估。結果發現以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)所佔濃度最高(約2.8ppm)。經危害評估結果其危害指標HI=16.4>1;顯示室內工作人員長處於此環境中將有慢性之非致癌風險。
補綴科之牙科醫師及工作人員顯然皆暴露在不合乎人體健康的作業環境中。其中CO2 、TVOC、 HCHO分別高於建議值1.2倍1.8倍及5.4倍,因此,建議應加設局部抽氣裝置以降低室內有毒污染物質之濃度(如:TVOC、HCHO),或至少需增加換氣次數達每小時6次以上改善室內通風,使得室內空氣品質符合法令規定。
The objectives of this study is to measure the air concentration of volatile organic compounds(VOCS) during dental service and evaluate the influences of indoor air quality (IAQ) human health.
The widespread uses of VOC’s in prosthodontic dentistry were selected as our study subjects. The IAQ was measured by automatic sampling method (ASM).The measured items consist of CO、CO2、PM10、temperature (T)、wind speed (V) and indoor RH. Meanwhile, the multi-point sampling with indoor average points of HCHO、CO2 and TVOC. And the sampling process was continuously monitored in 7 days, 24 hours per day. Besides, the in-site air change rate(ACH) was measured.
In workday (8:00-18:00) the results of HCHO reached around 0.54 (0.20) ppm , higher than 0.1ppm standards.CO2 was 1265.10(183)、1299.08(344.24)ppm higher than 1000ppm standard. TVOC was 5.44ppm (2.10), higher than 3ppm standards. Besides, And (ACH)was 1.48 times per hour.
To base on the result of two evaluate method, we selected the time period of indoor air quality was less than the normal level(15:30∼17:30;Monday), use TO-15 to measure the qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatility organic matter. All the data received indicated that the concentration of MMA(about 2.8ppm) is the highest in all analyzed volatility organic matter. According to the Hazard Index, the HI=16.4>1, exhibit that the indoor worker may have the chronic occupational risks of no carcinogenic.
According to investigation the dentist and workers obviously were exposed in substandard workroom. TVOC、HCHO and CO2 individual higher than standards 1.2times、1.8time and 0.45 time , therefore it is recommended to install local vacuum devices. At least the(ACH)should add 6 times per hour to improve local ventilation conform to standard.
目錄
第一章前言
1-1 研究緣起 ----------------------------------------------1
1-2 研究目的 ----------------------------------------------3
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 牙科使用材料及其特性 ----------------------------------4
2-2 室內空氣品質與人體健康 --------------------------------8
2-3 室內通風換氣評估基準 ---------------------------------20
2-4 揮發性有機物之風險評估 -------------------------------35
2-5 各國室內空氣品質相關法規比較 -------------------------43
第三章研究材料與方法
3-1 研究架構與流程 ---------------------------------------48
3-2 研究對象之選擇 ---------------------------------------51
3-3 採樣環境現況 -----------------------------------------54
3-4 研究設備與採樣策略 -----------------------------------56
第四章結果與討論
4-1 作業環境量測結果 -------------------------------------76
4-2 室內平均空氣齡量測結果 ------------------------------109
4-3 空氣中揮發性有機物採樣分析結果 ----------------------111
第五章結語與建議
5-1 結語 ------------------------------------------------119
5-2 建議與後續研究之課題 --------------------------------120
5-3 研究限制 --------------------------------------------121
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