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研究生:王肇齡
研究生(外文):Wang Chao-Ling
論文名稱:國小學童血鉛濃度與學習成就的關係
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between blood lead concentrations and learning
指導教授:何啟功何啟功引用關係吳聰能吳聰能引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho Chi-KungWu Trong-Neng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:職業安全衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:兒童血鉛學習成就
外文關鍵詞:childrenblood leadacademic achievement
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過去20年來,有關於環境鉛暴露對兒童智商的影響已多次被研究者表現,且其血鉛濃度多遠低於中毒閾值。台灣已為一工業化國家,鉛暴露的影響一向是工業環境衛生的重要課題之一,尤其是在重工業普遍的高雄地區,因此我們嘗試找出環境鉛暴露對國小學生課業表現的影響。我們由高雄市11個行政區隨機選出32所國小,每區至少一所國小,再在各小學中隨機選出一個班級,在取得家長同意後,並且在老師及校護的配合之下,我們統計分析了934位國小三年級學童的血鉛值,並且請學生填寫有關其家庭社經地位等人文變項問卷,並在學期結束後將學童的學業成績納入分析。 國小三年級的學童學習科目共六科,除了操行及體育之外,納入分析之課目包括國語、數學、社會、自然等四科,並且以班級名次來找出與血鉛值之相關。結果我們發現934位學童的平均血鉛值(標準差)為5.50 (1.86)μg/dL,而Spearman’s coefficient則顯示國語、數學、社會、自然的班級名次均與血鉛值有統計上相關(P<0.01)。合併學童父母社經地位的調整之後,多變項回歸分析模式(Multiple regression)更顯示血鉛濃度對學童的國語及社會等科目學習表現有顯著影響(P<0.01),而對數學及自然之學習表現影響亦屬顯著(P<0.05),但其迴歸係數及R平方值則較國語及社會為小,由此結果可推論鉛暴露對兒童語言記憶學習成就的影響較計算理解能力的影響要大。本研究結果顯示,即使在低量環境鉛暴露下,仍會對兒童學習表現出負面的影響。
Over the past 20 years lead have been proved to exert an influence on the intelligence of children. Especially for children exposed to environmental lead, their average blood lead was often lower than the intoxication level. Kaohsiung is an industrial area in Southern Taiwan also with lead exposure as an important environmental issue, we attempted to ascertain the extent that environmental lead influences the achievement of primary school children.
We randomly selected 934 children from 32 primary schools in 11 districts of Kaohsiung City. Blood lead levels were checked and the children were administered questionnaires about their family information. Scores of several schools courses were used in this study on the relationship between a child''s blood lead and his or her academic performance (ranking with his or her classmates), including Chinese (reading and writing short Chinese articles), Mathematics, History and Society, and Natural Science. Multiple regression models were done with adjustments for the confounding effects of their parents’ socioeconomic levels. The mean (SD) of 934 blood lead level was 5.50(1.86) microgram/dL. Spearman’s coefficient showed that class rankings in Chinese, Mathematics, Natural Science, and History and Society were all strongly associated with blood lead levels (P<0.01). The multiple regression models revealed that blood lead level to exert a stronger influence on the children''s language ability (Chinese) than on their ability to calculate (Mathematics).
Our results suggest that environmental lead exposure adversely affects a child''s academic achievement, making it a direct declaration influence of exposure to this substance on academic achievement.
第一章 序論
第一節前言--------------------------------------------- 9
第二節研究動機及背景-----------------------------------10
第二章 文獻探討
第一節鉛的毒理學作用-----------------------------------11
第二節孩童鉛中毒相關之早期文獻-------------------------15
第三節關於環境鉛暴露對兒童發展的影響
─世代研究(Cohort study) ---------------------------------16
第四節環境鉛暴露與兒童智商的關係-----------------------19
第五節環境鉛暴露與兒童行為及發展的關係-----------------21
第六節本土的研究與本研究方向---------------------------23
第三章 研究設計
第一節研究目的-----------------------------------------25
第二節研究假設-----------------------------------------26
第三節研究架構-----------------------------------------27
第四章 研究方法
第一節研究對象選取-------------------------------------28
第二節問卷收集及血液分析-------------------------------28
第三節變項定義-----------------------------------------29
第四節統計分析-----------------------------------------29
第五章 研究結果
第一節學童基本資料-------------------------------------31
第二節父母社經地位-------------------------------------33
第三節四科成績平均值-----------------------------------36
第四節血鉛與學童成績-----------------------------------37
第五節學童成績及父母社經地位及教育程度-----------------39
第六節血鉛與其他相關因子分析---------------------------43
第七節多變異數回歸分析---------------------------------45
第六章 討論-----------------------------------------------49
第七章 結論與建議-----------------------------------------54
附錄一----------------------------------------------------55
附錄二----------------------------------------------------56
附錄三----------------------------------------------------60
附錄四----------------------------------------------------61
參考文獻--------------------------------------------------64
表目錄
表一 血中鉛濃度與人體反應-------------------------------14
表二  學童血鉛,年齡及父母年齡之平均值及標準差-----------32
表三  學童其雙親職業分級情形-----------------------------33
表四  學童其雙親教育程度分級情形-------------------------34
表五  父親社經地位分級-----------------------------------35
表六  學童學業成績原始分數平均值及標準差-----------------36
表七  血鉛與成績的關係-----------------------------------37
表八  血鉛與成績的關係-----------------------------------38
表九  父親教育程度及學童成績-----------------------------39
表十  父親職業及學童成績---------------------------------40
表十一 父親社經地位及學童成績-----------------------------40
表十二 母親教育程度及學童成績-----------------------------41
表十三 母親職業及學童成績---------------------------------42
表十四 血中鉛與其他變異數的相關---------------------------44
表十五 各區及各校兒童血鉛平均值及標準差-------------------45
表十六 各校原始成績平均值分布情形(原始成績及標準差)-------46
表十七 班級排名(class ranking)及其他變項的複回歸分析模式--48
表十八 班級排名(class ranking)及其他變項的複回歸分析模式--53
(去除一血鉛為25.5μg/dL之後)
圖目錄
圖一 學童血中鉛之分布情形 (Histogram)--------------------31
圖二 國語排名與血鉛的regression model中的殘差圖及fitting line
----------51
圖三 數學排名與血鉛的regression model中的殘差圖及fitting line ----------52
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