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研究生:曾幼涵
研究生(外文):Yo-han Tzeng
論文名稱:解析青少年犯罪率高峰之現象:「低自我控制」「與成熟代溝」之再議
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of the Concepts of Low Self-Control and Maturity Gap in the Pick Delinquency Phenomenon of Adolescents at Taiwan
指導教授:李美枝李美枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Chi Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:青少年犯罪一般犯罪理論低自我控制成熟代溝終生型反社會行為青少年暫時型反社會行為
外文關鍵詞:juvenile delinquencya general theory of crimelow self-controlmaturity gaplife-course-persistent antisocial behavioradolescence-limited antisocial behavior
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國內外的犯罪統計都發現青少年犯罪率高峰之現象。本研究擷取一般犯罪理論(A general theory of crime; Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990)與成熟代溝理論(Maturity gap theory; Moffitt, 1993)的觀點來探討青少年犯罪率高峰現象之成因。一般犯罪理論採犯罪成因一元解釋觀點,認為犯罪人皆來自社會化不良所產生之低自我控制(low self-control)特質,低自我控制者具有貪圖眼前享樂,不顧未來後果的特性;一旦遇到適當的犯罪時機就會產生犯罪行為,而青春期正是犯罪能力與動機較強之時期,故青少年犯罪率特高。Moffitt將青少年犯罪分成青少年暫時型反社會行為(Adolescence-limited antisocial behavior)與終生型反社會行為(Life-course-persistent antisocial behavior)兩種,前者源於成熟代溝(maturity gap),指青少年在青春期生理成熟時產生之成人角色需求,受到法律或親長之限制而引發叛逆犯罪;後者則源於較先天性的神經心理因素。本研究即以「低自我控制」與「成熟問題」兩觀點來探索青少年犯罪率高峰現象的成因。本研究抽取國、高中學生共602人以及矯正機構學生共222人,比較國一到高三共六個年級的偏差行為分數,發現國二到國三是偏差行為的遽增期。階層回歸分析發現「低自我控制」先於社會化而存在,對偏差行為有很強的預測力;但是「成熟問題」的預測力與「低自我控制」相當。將受試者分成小時候即有偏差行為且持續到國中以後的「早發型」,以及直到國中以後才開始有偏差行為的「晚發型」,發現「早發型」無論在「低自我控制」或「成熟問題」,都較「晚發型」來得高分(即自我控制力較低,成熟困擾較高);訪談二位「早發型」及二位「晚發型」的矯正機構學生,發現「早發型」之自我控制力較低,但成熟困擾與「晚發型」相當。由於青春期發展困擾普遍存在於偏差青少年,使小學階段即有偏差行為的「早發型」產生更多違犯行為,使原先沒有偏差行為的「晚發型」開始從事違犯行為,乃因而產生青少年犯罪率高峰之現象。本研究額外的發現是,親長若對於青少年之官能性成熟需求加以限制,可抑制偏差行為之發生。另外,可預期「早發型」有持續犯罪的可能性,因為除了「低自我控制」的不良特質外,該特質會與惡質環境交互作用而產生進一步的累積結果(cumulative consequences)。
With regard to the pick-delinquency phenomenon of adolescents, there are two major theories. A General Theory of Crime (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990) attribute the phenomenon to the crime committing opportunity caused by the strengthened motivation and action capacity of low self-control individuals who step into adolescence period. The Maturity-Gap Theory (Moffitt, 1993) emphasizes that the discrepancy between the newly developed needs and the limitation toward the fulfillment of these needs from social agents caused the jump of juvenile delinquency. 606 Students of general schools and 222 custodial adolescents of correction schools were asked to answer a questionnaire of which the variables related to the two theories were constructed. Using deviant behaviors as criterion variables and the measured variables as predicting variables, the regression analyses by sets of variables yield the following results: (1) instant fun seeking, impulsiveness, deviant peer association and sensual needs resulted from maturation are highly significant variables to predict deviant behaviors. Whereas, the inhibition of sensual maturation needs from adults are countering variables to prevent adolescents from doing deviant behavior. In sum, maturity is highly related to juvenile delinquency but not the way explained by the maturity-gap theory at least at Taiwan. Comparing the delinquents of " early onset (of crime)" and "late onset" with "never onset" adolescents, the deviant profiles of the former two groups are similar to each other, but with the "early onset" having higher scores on the measured undesirable variables which may result from cumulative effect of circulating interaction between the adolescent''''s low self-control characteristics and vicious environment. The same conclusion can be derived from the qualitative data from interviewing four delinquents of correction school.
目 錄
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………………………...1
第二節 台灣有無「青少年犯罪率高峰」之現象?…………………………...2
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………………………...7
第二章 文獻回顧(一):理論介紹………………………………………………..8
第一節 一般犯罪理論………………………………………………………...8
第二節 LCP與AL兩類型犯罪理論…………………………………….….14
第三節 二理論之比較:一元解釋vs.二分解釋…….……………………….21
第四節 重要概念之討論…………………………………………………….22
一、「低自我控制」之意涵……………………………………………..22
二、「成熟代溝」之意涵………………………………………………..23
三、舉例說明「低自我控制」與「成熟代溝」如何解釋青少年犯罪…25
第三章 文獻回顧(二):我國青少年犯罪情形………………………………….26
第一節 實徵研究結果…………………………………………………….…26
第二節 坊間文獻分析…………………………………………………….…29
第三節 討論………………………………………………………………….36
第四章 研究一:國、高中青少年的調查………………………………………...37
第一節 測量工具與預試…………………………………………………….37
第二節 正式施測…………………………………………………………….39
第三節 研究結果…………………………………………………………….41
一、 偏差行為之分析……………………………………………………41
二、 各分量表之因素分析………………………………………………44
三、 偏差行為與各因素之兩兩相關分析………………………………49
四、 階層回歸分析………………………………………………………53
五、 「早發型」、「晚發型」與「無偏差型」青少年之比較…………56
第四節 討論………………………………………………………………….62
第五章 研究二:矯正機構青少年的調查………………………………………..66
第一節 研究方法…………………………………………………………….66
第二節 量化研究結果……………………………………………………….67
一、 「早發型」與「晚發型」在各因素的比較…………………………67
二、 從事偏差行為理由之探討…………………………………………70
三、 討論:"量"的差異 vs. "質"的差異…………………………………72
第三節 質化研究結果……………………………………………………….72
一、 質化研究過程………………………………………………………73
二、 早發型的發展歷程…………………………………………………74
三、 晚發型的發展歷程…………………………………………………83
四、 「早發型」與「晚發型」之比較…………………………………93
第四節 討論……………………………………………………………….…96
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………..98
第一節 綜合討論………………………………………………………….…98
一、 我國青少年犯罪率高峰現象的確立………………………………98
二、 青少年犯罪率高峰現象產生之理由………………………………99
三、 一般犯罪理論的驗證與檢討……………………………………..100
四、 成熟代溝理論的驗證與檢討……………………………………..102
五、 Moffitt犯罪成因二元論之優點…………………………………..103
第二節 檢討………………………………………………………………...104
第三節 建議………………………………………………………………...105
一、 學術研究的建議…………………………………………………..105
二、 實務工作的建議…………………………………………………..106
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………107
附錄一 預試問卷…………………………………………………………………113
附錄二 正式施測問卷……………………………………………………………121
附錄三 問卷指導語………………………………………………………………129
圖 表 目 錄
圖1-1 典型之犯罪年齡分佈圖……………………………………………………..2
圖1-2 各年齡犯罪人口率之比較…………………………………………………..5
圖1-3 以十歲為年距的犯罪人口率之比較………………………………………..5
圖1-4 各年齡犯罪人口率之比較(扣除煙毒、麻藥、賭博等)………………..6
圖1-5 以十歲為年距的犯罪人口率之比較(扣除煙毒、麻藥、賭博等)……..6
圖3-1 少年犯罪發生歷程模式……………………………………………………28
圖4-1 不同年級受測者在國小與國中以後之偏差行為…………………………43
圖5-1 早發型與晚發型在負向特質之平均數……………………………………70
圖5-2 早發型與晚發型在正向特質之平均數……………………………………70
表4-1 預試樣本分佈………………………………………………………………39
表4-2 研究一正式施測樣本分佈…………………………………………………40
表4-3 各項偏差行為之發生率……………………………………………………41
表4-4 男女在國小、國中以後偏差行為總分之分佈情形………………………42
表4-5 不同年級在國小偏差行為與國中以後偏差行為之平均數比較…………43
表4-6 自我控制特性(36題)因素分析之因素負荷量………………………...45
表4-7 父親教養方式(14題)因素分析之因素負荷量…………………………46
表4-8 母親教養方式(14題)因素分析之因素負荷量…………………………46
表4-9 同儕關係(11題)因素分析之因素負荷量………………………………47
表4-10 學校適應(12題)因素分析之因素負荷量…………………………….47
表4-11 成熟代溝(23題)因素分析之因素負荷量…………………………….48
表4-12 叛逆性(8題)因素分析之因素負荷量…………………………………48
表4-13 各項因素的平均數與標準差……………………………………………..49
表4-14 各因素間的兩兩相關矩陣………………………………………………..52
表4-15 階層回歸分析--個人特質變項先進入回歸方程式……………….……..54
表4-16 階層回歸分析--社會變項先進入回歸方程式…………………………...54
表4-17 階層回歸分析--低自我控制vs. 成熟代溝………………………………56
表4-18 「偏差型」與「無偏差型」在各項特質上的平均數差異比較……………58
表4-19 「早發型」與「晚發型」在各項特質上的平均數差異比較…………..60
表4-20 「早發型」與「晚發型」從事偏差行為理由之平均數………………..62
表5-1 研究二樣本分佈……………………………………………………………66
表5-2 「早發型」與「晚發型」在各項特質上的平均數差異比較……………68
表5-3 「早發型」與「晚發型」從事偏差行為理由之平均數…………………71
表5-4 從事各項偏差行為之理由平均數(合併早發型與晚發型)……………71
表5-5 四位受訪者資料……………………………………………………………73
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