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研究生:吳竹君
研究生(外文):Wu, Chu-Chun
論文名稱:資訊時代與外交
論文名稱(外文):Diplomacy in Information Age
指導教授:姜家雄姜家雄引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:全球化資訊時代資訊革命資訊傳播科技虛擬外交1998外交事務改革與重組法
外文關鍵詞:globalizationinformation ageinformation revolutioninformation and communication technologiesICTvirtual diplomacyThe Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998
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西元1453年古騰堡發明活字印刷術開啟了資訊革命,而各項資訊傳播科技的相繼發明,更將人類歷史帶入資訊時代。資訊傳播科技超越時空障礙的特質使得人們可以穿越國家疆界線進行交流,促成了全球化的產生,為資訊時代無法阻擋的一股潮流。各項訊息能夠快速且自由的流通,此種現象對國際社會的不同層次均造成衝擊,舉凡國際議題、國家間交往、國家主權乃至於個人生活的各個方面,無一不受到資訊傳播科技大幅發展而面臨轉變。資訊為外交最重要的元素,是外交工作的血肉。先進資訊傳播科技改變了資訊傳遞與接收的特性與方式,對外交體制必定造成相當程度的影響。
資訊傳播科技的發展到了近20年,可說是以電腦科技與網際網路技術為重心。電腦網路等資訊傳播科技應用於國家政治造就了電子民主,若與國家外交相結合便產生「虛擬外交」。資訊為外交不可或缺的內涵,則外交部門及外交人員應用先進資訊傳播科技於其工作中便有其必要性,而虛擬外交的出現實乃反映出資訊時代的需要。
資訊傳播科技在美國萌芽,美國亦是世上最早體認到資訊時代對外交體制造成種種挑戰而展開熱烈討論的國家。自1993年起,美國政府及學術機構便展開一連串的研究活動,目的在探尋資訊時代外交體制的因應之道。美國政府亦積極從事外交再造工程,《1998外交事務改革與重組法》的頒佈與生效,為美國改革實踐的第一步,而美國的作法亦可成為其他國家學習效法的指標。
第一章 導論…………………………………………………………….….1
第一節 研究動機與目的.……………………………….…………...1
第二節 研究問題………….……………………………….………...2
第三節 文獻回顧……………....…………………………….…....3
第四節 研究範圍與限制……….…………………………….……...6
第五節 研究方法………………….…….…………………………...8
第六節 論文架構…………………….……….……………………...8
第二章 資訊革命與資訊時代……………….…………………………….10
第一節 全球化潮流……………………….…………………….....10
第二節 資訊革命…………………………….……………………...19
第三節 資訊時代之特質……………………….…………………...25
第四節 資訊時代與當前國家體系……………….………………...31
第三章 資訊時代與虛擬外交…………………………….……………...41
第一節 網際網路的發展………………………...………………...41
第二節 網際世界之特質…………………………….……………...49
第三節 虛擬外交……………………………………….…………...68
第四節 外交之持續與轉變………………………………...……...82
第四章 資訊時代的美國外交……………………………………...…...92
第一節 回顧美國外交體制的發展……………………….………...92
第二節 美國外交挑戰……………………………………….……...98
第三節 資訊時代的美國外交:改革建議與實踐………………...111
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………….…140
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………….150
圖表目次

圖2-1資訊傳播科技發展曲線…………………………………………29
圖2-2當代國家主權之挑戰……………………………..……………39
圖3-1網路搜尋引擎「雅虎」(Yahoo!)..………………..…………47
圖3-2網路搜尋引擎「蕃薯藤」……………………………..………47
圖3-3網路搜尋引擎「奇摩」………………………………..………48
圖3-4摩爾法則……………………………………………..…………51
圖3-5全世界主電腦數量成長趨勢,1991-2000……….……………55
圖3-6「雅虎」“Foreign Service” 相關網站搜尋結果…………62
圖3-7美國國務院首頁…………………………………………………79
圖4-1美國國務院組織架構(《1998外交改革與重組法》之前).138
圖4-2美國國務院組織架構(《1998外交改革與重組法》之後).139

表2-1全球化過程關鍵性歷史事件……………………………………18
表3-1英代爾電腦晶片技術技術發展…………………………………52
表3-2全世界主電腦數量,1991-2000………………….……………55
表3-3網際網路成年人使用人口………………………………………57
表4-1美國外交相關研究網站…………………………………………97
表4-2美國聯邦預算,1976-2004(百萬美元)……………………110
參考文獻
中文部分
一、 專書
弗特爾(Robert S. Fortner)。《國際傳播》,龐文真譯。台北:五南,民國85年。
林嘉誠、朱浤源編。《政治學辭典》。台北:五南,民國83年。
威廉士(Frederick Williams)。《傳播革命》,韓玉蘭譯。台北:允晨,民國72年。
柏納李(Tim Berners-Lee)。《一千零一網:WWW發明人的思想構圖》,張介英、徐子超譯。台北:台灣商務,民國88年。
格林(John Green)。《通訊新紀元》,陳雅茜譯。台北:寰宇,民國87年。
康特(Rosabeth Moss Kanter)。《世界級:區域性企業也能競逐全球》,林添貴譯。台北:先覺,民國88年。
蓋茲(Bill Gates)。《新‧擁抱未來:「資訊高速公路」未來新藍圖》,王美音譯。台北:遠流,民國86年。
增田米二(Yoneji Masuda)。《資訊地球村》,游琬娟譯。台北:天下,民國83年。
韓德森(Hazel Henderson)。《打造雙贏》,張嘉倩譯。台北:經典傳訊文化,民國87年。
二、期刊論文
何方。〈關於經濟全球化的幾個問題〉。《世界經濟》,第8期。1998年8月,頁:10-14。
英文部分
一、 專書
Albrow, Martin, and Elizabeth King, eds. Globalization, Knowledge and Society. London: Sage, 1990.
Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 1991.
Barrett, Neil. The State of the Cybernation: Cultural, Political and Economic Implications of the Internet. London: Kogan Page, 1997.
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Berge, Zane L., and Marie Collins. Computer Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton, 1995.
Cairncross, Frances. The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.
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Frederick, Howard H. Global Communication and International Relations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993.
Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: The Free Press, 1992.
Giddens, Anthony The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 1991.
Grossman, Lawrence K. The Electronic Republic: Reshaping Democracy in the Information Age. New York: Viking Penguin, 1995.
Hamilton, Keith, and Richard Langhorne. The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory and Administration. London: Routledge, 1995.
Hemelink, Cees J. The Politics of World Communication. London: Sage, 1994.
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Holton, Robert J. Globalization and the Nation State. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.
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Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
Roland, Robertson Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage, 1992.
Rosati, Jerel A., Joe D. Hagan, and Martin W. Sampson. Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Global Change. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.
Rosenau, James N. Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Schaeffer, Robert K. Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Stevenson, Robert L. Global Communication in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Longman, 1994.
Tapscott, Don, Alex Lowy, and David Ticoll, eds. Blueprint to the Digital Economy: Creating the Wealth in the Era of E-Business. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998.
Targowski, Andrew S. Global Information Infrastructure: The Birth, Vision, and Architecture. London: Idea Group Publishing, 1998.
Taylor, Philip M. Global Communications, International Affairs and the Media since 1945. London: Routledge, 1997.
Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave. London: Collins, 1980.
Toffler, Alvin. Future Shock. London: Pan Books, 1970.
Vyrynen, Raimo, ed. Globalization and Global Governance. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
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二、 期刊論文
Albright, Madeleine K. “The FSO of Tomorrow.” Foreign Service Journal 74 (May 1997): 35.
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Anderson, Jim. “Chugging up the Onramp of the Info Interstate.” Foreign Service Journal 72 (March 1995): 32-39.
Arcos, Crescencio. “Pushing Diplomacy’s Limits.” Foreign Service Journal 74 (September 1997): 30-33.
Axford, Barine. “States and the Global System,” In The Global System: Economics, Politics, and Culture. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995.
Browning, Graeme. “Thomas Jefferson was a Hacker.” In Electronic Democracy: Using the Internet to Influence American Politics. Wilton, Conn.: Pemberton, 1996.
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Bush, Vannevar. “As We May Think.” Atlantic Monthly 176 (July 1945): 101-108. <http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/computer/bushf.htm>, 26 November 1999.
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Kegley, Charles W., Jr., and Eugene R. Wittkopf. “The Goals of American Foreign Ploicy: The Postwar Pattern.” In American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process, 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1991.
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三、 網際網路資源
美國國務院網站 <http://www.state.gov/>
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