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研究生:劉楚筠
論文名稱:全球化風潮下的巴西環境政策:亞馬遜流域案例之分析
指導教授:鄧中堅鄧中堅引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:巴西環境政策亞馬遜全球化
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一國的政策產出常是受到該國政治、經濟、社會因素等的影響,而在巴西,由於其境內的「地球綠肺」亞馬遜雨林攸關人類之永續生存,故特別引起國際重視,也因此巴西的環境決策除了受到國內政治、經濟、社會因素影響以外,國際面的衝擊對之也深具撼動力。本文分別探討巴西軍政府時期與文人政府時期的國際情勢(外部環境)如何與其國內政治、經濟、社會因素(伊斯頓政治分析模型中的輸入項)相互作用,進而影響巴西軍政府與文人政府時期的環境政策,特別是亞馬遜政策。
巴西軍政府時期由於抱持「依賴」理論的世界觀,加以政治民族主義強烈,人民又乏管道表達反對意見﹔全國上下一味不惜犧牲亞馬遜以追求高經濟成長﹔社會上的環境運動發展雖始萌芽,但尚未成熟﹔國際間對於環境保護的共識亦尚處於模糊階段,故造就出一面倒向「大力開發亞馬遜」的政策決議。相較於政治與經濟因素的強烈開發動機,社會與國際因素的制衡力量根本不足以阻止亞馬遜流域的慘遭破壞與不永續發展。
文人政府時期的巴西受到全球化風潮的影響,受國際影響程度日漸增大,政治上亦開始走向民主,然而其政治特色一大部分係延續傳統的巴西政治文化,其政治現實上的限制一定程度地阻礙了巴西環境政策的落實;經濟方面,雖然巴西在卡爾多索的領導下擺脫了高通膨的惡夢,但對外部門脆弱的問題使得巴西政府的目標仍然是刺激經濟增長,故巴西經濟好轉對於亞馬遜政策是幸抑或是不幸,吾人仍持保留的態度。不過若以文人政府時期的社會面來看,則亞馬遜的前景便樂觀許多。雖然巴西目前有眾多非政府環境組織規模都不大,資源也不夠充裕,政府也不見得重視,但此時期中產階級與群眾運動開始結合運作,使得環境運動力量大增,即便目前其對政治的直接影響有限,但透過環保文化與價值的深耕,必可對未來的世代產生長遠的影響,政客們也會因選民的傾向而漸漸加強其環保的訴求,最後再輔以國際力量的支持,相信巴西人對於自己的環境會有越來越多的深思與關懷。
第一章導論
第一節研究動機與目的………………………………1
第二節研究方法與理論架構…………………………5
第三節文獻探討………………………………………6
第四節論文架構與限制 ……………………………10
第一部份 軍政府時期(1964 — 1985年)
第二章影響巴西軍政府時期環境政策之國際因素……15
第一節 軍政府時期的國際關係理論背景…………16
第二節 國際環保合作的開始………………………20
第三節 小結…………………………………………22
第三章影響巴西軍政府時期環境政策之國內因素……23
第一節國內政治因素 ………………………………24
第二節國內經濟因素 ………………………………30
第三節國內社會因素 ………………………………38
第四節小結 …………………………………………46
第四章巴西軍政府時期亞馬遜政策解析………………49
第一節亞馬遜開發政策 ……………………………50
第二節巴西環境機構與立法的發展 ………………54
第三節小結 …………………………………………58
第二部分 文人政府時期(1985年迄今)
第五章影響巴西文人政府時期環境政策之國際因素…61
第一節全球化風潮的興起 …………………………62
第二節國際環保合作的開展 ………………………64
第三節小結 …………………………………………72
第六章影響巴西文人政府時期環境政策之國內因素…73
第一節國內政治因素 ………………………………74
第二節國內經濟因素 ………………………………83
第三節國內社會因素 ………………………………94
第四節小結 …………………………………………99
第七章巴西文人政府時期亞馬遜政策解析 …………101
第一節 亞馬遜政策的轉變…………………………102
第二節 環境機構與立法的發展……………………104
第三節 小結…………………………………………108
第八章結論 ……………………………………………109
參考文獻……………………………………………………114
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二、期刊
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(二) 英文期刊
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Kolk, Ans (1998) “From Conflict to Cooperation: International Policies to Protect the Brazilian Amazon.” World Development 26(Ag): 1481-93.
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Martinez Fabre, Jose (1996) “The 1988 Brazilian Constitution and the Real Plan: Contradictions and Challenges.” Ceteris Paribus 6(April): 43-68.
Menotti, Victor (1998) “Globalization and the Acceleration of Forest Destruction since Rio.” Ecologist 28(N/D): 354-62.
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Schneider, Ben Ross (1997/1998) “Organized Business Politics in Democratic Brazil.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 39(Winter): 95-127.
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Zaverucha, Jorge (1998) “The 1988 Brazilian Constitution and Its Authoritarian Legacy: Formalizing Democracy while Gutting Its Essence.” Journal of Third World Studies 15 (Spring): 105-24.
Zebich Knos, Michele (1994) “Tropical Rainforest Policy in Brazil and Costa Rica: Has A Lesson Been Learned?” Journal of Third World Studies 1(Fall): 91-104.
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三、網站
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/brazil/intro/.
http://library.thinkquest.org/20248/geo.html
http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/brazil/br_appen.html
http://research.amnh.org/biodiversity/Climate/biolovejoy.html
http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/External/lac/lac.nsf/4c794feb793085a5852567d6006ad764/e930928932c1da5a852567e6006da59d?OpenDocument
http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/e295f16eb661097785256885007ba550/995984b0d0134672852567f5005d83a1.
http://www.australiabrazil.com.au/brazinfo.html
http://www.bcb.gov.br/ingles/hiie3010.htm#tab4
http://www.bcb.gov.br/ingles/public/wps/wps1.pdf
http://www.brnet.com.br/pages/eect1/eco_division/index_c.html
http://www.defesa.gov.br/historia/historia.htm
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/what/strategy_papers/brazil_csp_text.html.
http://www.eli.org/elrinternationalna/articles/brazilmonteiro.htm
http://www.fgv.br/
http://www.gtz.de/pp-g7/english/
http://www.gtz.de/pp-g7/english/finanz.htm.
http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/default.php
http://www.library.utoronto.ca/g7/summit/1990houston/communique/environment.html
http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/br.html#gov
http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/brazil_0700_bgn.html
http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/law/br00000_.html
http://www.worldbank.org/nipr/brazil/braz-over.htm
http://www.worldbank.org/pics/pid/br39290.txt.
http://www.worldbank.org/pics/pid/br6571.txt.
http://www.wri.org/rio-5/rio5frst.html#overview
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