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研究生:熊欣華
研究生(外文):Hsin-Hua Hsiung
論文名稱:組織間合作的信心管理
論文名稱(外文):The Confidence Management of Interorganizational Cooperation
指導教授:司徒達賢司徒達賢引用關係于卓民于卓民引用關係
指導教授(外文):William Dah-Hsian SeetooJoseph Chwo-Ming Yu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:271
中文關鍵詞:關係風險信心信心要求水準信任交易成本理論
外文關鍵詞:relational riskconfidencedemanded confidence leveltrusttransaction cost theory
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:159
  • 點閱點閱:910
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:277
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:12
「合作」是廠商取得資源與培養能力的重要方式,尤其是在全球市場競爭與整合加劇的知識經濟時代。然合作過程可能會產生關係風險,此種風險來自於合作夥伴的不遵守合作精神或是機會主義行為。關係風險將妨礙廠商目標的達成,故合作關係之管理成為學術界與實務界相當重視的議題。
對於組織間合作的探討,重要的研究取向可分為兩類:交易成本理論與信任觀點之研究。交易成本理論假定人有機會主義的傾向,因此使得交易成本增加。透過統治結構與契約機制等安排,廠商可以獲得保障並降低交易成本。信任觀點之研究認為信任扮演抑制機會主義,增加合作效率等作用,並且也指出眾多有助於產生信任之因素,特別是社會化機制對信任之影響。然這兩種研究取向各有其限制,故近年來已出現整合趨勢。
本研究提出「信心管理觀點」,主張廠商在合作關係中,將評估合作可能產生的關係風險,而採取種種管理機制,以產生對合作夥伴的信心。相較於交易成本理論,信心管理觀點考量到個別廠商與合作夥伴的特性,並且認為廠商在合作關係中,重視的是合作夥伴的可靠性,以及能否藉由適當之管理而產生信心,而非僅重視交易成本的問題。相較於信任觀點之研究,信心管理觀點主張廠商重視的是合作夥伴的正面行為表現,而不是夥伴內在動機的善意。如此可避免過去信任研究中「可管理性」不足以及歸因錯誤等問題。
信心管理架構指出,廠商在關係風險高的合作情境中,對合作夥伴會產生較高的信心要求水準,而關係風險情境與信心要求水準之間的關係會受到廠商特性與合作利益之調節影響。另外,當廠商的信心要求水準高時,廠商將透過各種管理機制以達到信心,包括選擇能夠認同的合作夥伴、增進目標相容性、掌握對方行為之資訊、塑造潛在懲罰力等。為了達到特定程度之信心,這些管理機制之間可以有替代關係,亦即某項管理機制較強時,另一項可以較弱。
本研究以台灣資訊電子業廠商為實證對象,基本分析單位為合作案。共計回收146個有效樣本。經統計分析後,大部分研究假設獲得實證支持。在關係風險情境的影響方面,在資產專屬性高、作業複雜性高與知識移轉程度高等合作情境中,廠商會出現較高的信心要求水準。當廠商決策者屬於風險愛好者,以及組織寬裕資源較多時,關係風險與信心要求水準之間的正向關係會較弱,證實廠商特性的調節效果存在。但是合作利益(包含策略重要性與財務利益等因素)並不會影響關係風險與信心要求水準間的關係。
在信心要求水準與管理機制方面的實證結果發現,信心要求水準將影響到各項管理機制的運用。當信心要求水準愈高時,個人層次認同、組織層次認同、目標相容性、資訊、外部潛在懲罰力與內部潛在懲罰力等管理機制之表現會愈強。實際對產生信心有幫助的管理機制有組織層次認同、目標相容性、資訊與內部潛在懲罰力,而個人層次認同與外部潛在懲罰力並無法有效產生對合作夥伴的信心。此外,將個案分群以觀察其管理機制型態,也並未發現明顯的替代關係。
綜合統計檢定結果,顯示信心管理理論架構的邏輯推論合理,對合作關係之管理具有良好解釋能力。在理論方面,本研究不僅提出周延且有系統的管理機制分類,並且證實心理因素對管理的中介影響;在實務方面,本研究可提供關係風險診斷、管理強度決定以及合作信心建立之參考依據。故本理論架構具有一定程度之貢獻。建議未來研究可進一步就關係風險內涵、最適管理強度、管理機制組合、心理狀態差距、合作夥伴角度與動態關係發展等議題進行深入探討。
Recently, the competion and integration in world market is severer than before. Firms not only establish their own advantages, but also cooperate with other firms, so that they could develop the "cooperative advantages" (Madhok & Tallman, 1998).
Although cooperation brings many advantages, the goals and benefits may not be the same between two parties. Therefore, there are a lot of problems and risks in cooperation. Generally speaking, in cooperation there may be two kinds of risks, relational risk and performance risk. The former is concerned with cooperative relationships, or the probability that the partner does not comply with the spirit of cooperation; the latter refers to the probability that intended strategic goals of an alliance may not be achieved, even though cooperation between the partners is satisfactory. The sources of these two kinds of risks are different. Relational risks come from the interactions between firm and firm; performance risks come from the interactions between firm and environment (Das & Teng, 1996). The issues of relational risk are concerned by practicians and academicians. If a firm can''''t handle the cooperative relationship with the partner, it would not only make it strategic goal failed but also fall into a hard situation.
A firm has to face the problems that the partner may not match the expectation in cooperational relationship. This study use "confidence" to refer to the firm''''s expectation toward its partner''''s positive behaviors. Das and Teng (1998) define confidence in partner cooperation as a firm''''s perceived level of certainty that its partner firm will pursue mutually compatible interests in the alliance, rather than act opportunistically. This study proposes that no matter a firm actively or passively joins a cooperation relationship, it will evaluates the risks and values of this cooperation. In a situation with high risks, the firm will emerge the "demanded confidence level" to its partner. Demanded confidence level is a kind of expectation, that is, how much a firm expects its partner could follow the cooperative spirit and not engage in opportunistic behavior. This study focuses on the information and electronics industry in Taiwan. The questionnaires were completed by high level managers. A basic sample unit is a cooperation relationship. Overall, there are 146 valid samples in the data.
Research variables are measured with five-point Likert scales. All items are written after the researcher reviewing the past theoretical and empirical literature. The reliability of the scales are good. The Cronbach''''s alpha of constructs are about 0.57 to 0.85, so the scales have internal consistency. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to check out the validity. The result shows that every item has good factor loading value. To test the hypotheses, I used principle component analysis, regression analysis, clustering analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance. Furthermore, I used path analysis to understand the effect of mediators.
This study indicates three kinds of situations with relational risk. As hypothesized, asset specificity, task complexity, and knowledge transfer have significant positive effects on demanded confidence level. After calculated by principle component analysis, the total relational risk affects the demanded confidence level more. Concerning the effects of moderators, the result shows that if the decision maker prefers risk more, or the firm has more organizational slack, the positive relationship between relational risk and demanded confidence level will be weaker. However, strategic importance and financial benefits don''''t effect the demanded confidence level. Although strategic importance and financial benefits don''''t have moderating effects, they still have positive relationships with demanded confidence level.
The result also manifests that the higher the demanded confidence level is, the more the firm exercises management mechanisms. Besides, demanded confidence level influences every kind of management mechanism. This finding means that when a firm wishes its partner to be reliable, it chooses a partner which could be identified (the firm has both personal identification and organizational identification to the partner), emphasizes the compatibility of goals and the handling of information, as well as uses the external and internal potential punishment powers. However, not every kind of mechanism can help to produce confidence. Organizational identification, goal compatibility, information, and internal potential punishment power have positive relationships with confidence, but personal identification and external potential punishment power can not increase the confidence. Besides, this study doesn''''t find the substitute relationships among the management mechanism.
第一章 緒 論……………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究問題與研究目的…………………………… 5
第三節 研究範圍與限制……………………………………. 9
第四節 研究流程……………………………………………. 12
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………. 14
第一節 交易成本理論………………………………………. 14
第二節 信任與組織間合作…………………………………. 34
第三節 理論比較與分析……………………………………. 55
第三章 理論架構……………………………………………. 63
第一節 信心管理概觀……………………………………….. 63
第二節 關係風險與信心要求水準………………………….. 73
第三節 信心管理機制……………………………………….. 87
第四章 研究方法…………………………………………….. 105
第一節 個案分析…………………………………………….. 105
第二節 研究樣本與資料蒐集………….……………………. 130
第三節 研究變數與問卷設計……………………………….. 134
第四節 資料分析方法………………………………………. 146
第五章 研究結果…………………………………………….. 151
第一節 基本資料分析……………………………………….. 151
第二節 問卷之信度與效度………………………………….. 161
第三節 影響信心要求水準因素的實證分析…….…………. 168
第四節 信心管理機制與信心的實證分析………….…..….. 180
第五節 信心管理機制間的關係………………………..…… 194
第六節 其他相關因素之影響…….………………………..… 202
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………….. 210
第一節 研究結論…………………………………………….. 210
第二節 理論貢獻與實務涵意………….……………………. 220
第三節 後續研究建議…………….………………………….. 227
參考文獻………………………………………..………………… 232
附錄一 研究問卷………………………………….…………….. 248
附錄二 合作利益對信心要求水準之影響……………….....….. 256
附錄三 集群分析各組係數計算………………………….…….. 260
附錄四 中介變數效果之檢驗……………………………….….. 264
附錄五 信心要求水準與信心之差距……………………….….. 269
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