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研究生:李國瑜
研究生(外文):Kuo-Yu Lee
論文名稱:知識移轉的整合模式--知識特性、吸收能力與社會資本
論文名稱(外文):The Integrative Model of Knowledge Transfer: Nature of Knowledge, Absorptive Capacity, and Social Capital
指導教授:司徒達賢司徒達賢引用關係于卓民于卓民引用關係
指導教授(外文):D.H. William SeetooChow-Ming Yu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:知識移轉知識特性吸收能力社會資本廠商間合作
外文關鍵詞:Knowledge TransferNature of KnowledgeAbsorptive CapacitySocial CapitalInterfirm Cooperation
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知識經濟時代的到來,使知識成為企業最重要的策略性資源,也是競爭優勢的主要來源。而知識移轉不僅可以協助企業獲取外界知識,也有助於企業創新,因此,透過合作進行有效的知識移轉成為創造競爭優勢的重要課題。
學者探討知識移轉的角度有極大差異。資源基礎觀點、知識基礎觀點、交易成本理論、組織學習以及策略聯盟與網絡理論,都對廠商之間如何決定合作型態有許多不同的見解。過去文獻基於不同觀點與不同研究情境,導致考慮因素的差異與決策的分歧,而且對於各種因素如何影響廠商決策的探討也相當有限。此外,知識移轉是一個過程,不僅有移轉前的決策,還有進行移轉過程中的變化,而過去文獻對於移轉過程中的變化甚少探討,也使得知識移轉的動態變化成為理論與實務上亟須探究的部分。
基於以上信念,本研究建立知識移轉的整合模式,以釐清重要觀念之間的關係,並且以經濟學的圖形為表達工具,系統化地解釋理論與實務現象,並發展知識移轉過程的動態模式。
知識移轉整合模式的主要目的,在於建構廠商進行知識向內移轉時,決定合作方式的模式。此模式的思考邏輯強調在效果與效率雙重考慮之下,廠商最適合作型態的選擇。效果的意義在於透過知識移轉過程達成預期的學習目標,效率的意義是廠商於達成目標時所付出的成本最低。
本研究可分為三個階段,分別為模式建立、個案訪談與問卷調查。模式建立部分採取文獻探討方式,分析文獻中主要構念,從中抽取最攸關的構念,演繹出廠商知識移轉時決定合作型態的整合性模式與動態模式,提出本模式的重要命題。其次再進行知識移轉個案的訪談,以本模式分析個案的現象。最後並使用問卷進行資料蒐集,對於基本模式的命題進行統計驗證。
以七個主要構念發展的「知識移轉整合模式」,分為三個階段,每個階段各有一個表達變數關係的函數,分別為「知識特性線」、「等移轉績效目標線」、「移轉機制與合作型態對應線」。七個構念中四個自變數「知識特性」、「吸收能力」、「社會資本」、「移轉績效目標」決定之後,即可使用模式的推演產生「知識移轉難度認知」與「移轉機制」這兩個中介變數,最後並推導出廠商在既定條件之下的最適「合作型態」,而以「合作內部化需求線」表示。不同合作型態也代表廠商為了進行移轉所付出的不同成本。這是本模式的靜態分析部分。
統計驗證結果顯示,本研究提出之基本模式命題大多數獲得支持。其中第一象限「吸收能力」、「知識連續性」對於「移轉難度認知」的影響均獲支持。第二象限「移轉難度認知」、「知識移轉目標」對於「移轉機制人員互動程度」的影響全部獲得支持。第三象限驗證的兩個命題「移轉機制人員互動程度」與「社會資本」對於「合作型態內部化程度」的影響也都獲得支持。
在動態分析部分,運用靜態分析模式中的變數關係,分析廠商在實際進行移轉之後,因為移轉過程中內生的變數演化,或者外生的產業環境變化、廠商策略目標與條件的轉變導致的變數改變,對於廠商之間合作型態的影響。在動態分析中,導致廠商合作動態變化的原因,包括廠商吸收能力、知識認知、移轉績效目標以及社會資本等影響因素在移轉過程中的改變。首先探討每一個變數改變的原因,尤其強調移轉的演化造成的改變,接著分析每一種變數改變之下,最適合作型態之變化。在最適合作型態改變之後,學習的廠商面臨變與不變的選擇,也就是「要不要改變本次合作型態」。如果基於「在最低成本之下達成移轉目標」的經濟理性原則,廠商應該要改變合作型態。 但是本模式的分析中也發現,在移轉進行中改變合作型態的決策,不僅影響本次移轉合作的成本,也影響未來再進行合作時的移轉成本。而未來移轉成本的變化與廠商的吸收能力水準有關,因此,廠商一方面應該考慮長期關係對於本身的重要性,一方面也要根據本身的吸收能力水準進行決策。
本研究提出的動態關係命題,可以解釋知識移轉合作型態變化的原因,並且用以預測合作關係可能的改變方式。透過這個可以表達變數反饋關係的圖形方法,在分析不同時點的廠商的行為或預測未來行為的變化時,可以清楚看出其中變化的過程,對於實務應用與理論發展都是比較方便而清晰的工具。
目 錄
第一章 緒論………….………………………………...…
第一節 研究背景………………………………………….…..
第二節 研究問題與研究目的……………………………..… .
第三節 研究設計…………………………………………..…..
第四節 研究範圍與限制………………………………………
1
1
4
6
10
第二章文獻探討……………………………………….
第一節 知識移轉的意義與類別………………………..……
第二節 知識的類別與特性…………………………..……….
第三節 吸收能力…………...…………………………………
第四節 移轉難度……………………………………………..
第五節 移轉程度……………………………………………..
第六節 移轉機制……………………………………………..
第七節 社會資本……………………………………………..
第八節 知識移轉的合作型態………………………………..
第九節 文獻小結……………………………………………..12
12
17
36
38
42
46
52
56
64
第三章知識移轉的合作型態模式……………………..
第一節知識移轉模式之觀念架構…………………………..
第二節知識移轉難度的認知………………………………..
第三節移轉機制的設定……………………………………..
第四節合作型態的決定…………….……………………..…
第五節合作內部化需求線……………………………..…….66
66
73
79
85
91
第四章合作型態的動態變化…………………….……
第一節學習效果………………………………..……………
第二節知識認知的改變………………………….…………
第三節移轉績效目標的改變…………………...………..…
第四節社會資本的改變………………………..…………...
第五節合作型態改變的影響………………………………..
第六節廠商的調整策略……………………………………..94
95
98
101
108
113
117
第五章模式驗證─個案研究…………………………..
第一節 個案研究法………………………………………….
第二節 個案內容…………………………………………….
第三節 個案分析…………………………………………….119
119
122
149
第六章模式驗證─統計分析…………………………..
第一節 研究樣本與資料蒐集……………………………….
第二節 研究變數與問卷設計……………………………….
第三節 資料分析方法……………………………………….
第四節 問卷的信度與效度………………………………….
第五節 基本資料分析……………………………………….
第六節 影響知識移轉難度的實證分析…………………….
第七節 影響知識移轉機制的實證分析…………………….
第八節 影響合作型態選擇的實證分析…………………….159
159
161
165
167
171
177
188
193
第七章結論與建議…………………………………….
第一節 研究結論……………………………………………
第二節 理論與實務涵義……………………………………
第三節 後續研究建議………………………………………197
197
207
212
參考文獻………………………………..…………………..
附錄一 訪談大綱…………………………………………….
附錄二 問卷………………………………………………….214
229
232
圖 目 錄
圖3-1-1 知識移轉整合模式觀念架構………………………….…66
圖3-1-2 知識移轉整合模式之階段…………………………….…67
圖3-2-1吸收能力對知識移轉難度認知的影響………………….74
圖3-2-2知識內隱性、複雜性對知識特性線的影響…………….74
圖3-2-3知識發展的連續性對知識移轉難度認知的影響…….…76
圖3-2-4知識發展完全不連續下的知識特性線………………….78
圖3-3-1等移轉績效線…………………………………………….80
圖3-3-2不同移轉績效目標對於移轉機制的影響……………….81
圖3-3-3不同認知難度在不同移轉績效目標下的移轉機制差異.85
圖3-4-1合作型態與移轉機制的對應關係………………………86
圖3-4-2社會資本影響合作型態與移轉機制的關係……………87
圖3-4-3社會資本對於合作型態與移轉機制關係的影響………90
圖3-5-1合作的內部化需求線………………………………….…92
圖4-1-1學習效果的影響………………………………………….96
圖4-1-2學習效果下合作型態的改變……………………………97
圖4-2-1資訊揭露使知識特性的認知改變……………………….92
圖4-2-2知識認知的改變對於合作型態的影響…………………100
圖4-3-1移轉績效目標的改變…………………………………….105
圖4-3-2知識移轉績效目標的改變對於合作型態的影響………106
圖4-4-1社會資本的改變…………………………………………110
圖4-4-2社會資本的改變對於合作型態的影響…………………111
圖4-5-1在合作中改變合作型態………………………………….114
圖4-5-2合作型態的改變對於後續合作的影響……………..…115
圖6-6-1A B知識的知識特性線…………………………………..182
圖7-1-1知識移轉整合模式統計分析結果……………………….202
圖7-1-2知識移轉模式動態影響關係206
表 目 錄
表2-2-1Spender (1996) 組織的智慧資本矩陣…………………..21
表2-2-2知識的分類方式與類別…………………………………..25
表2-5-1Bohn (1994)知識的深度………………………………….43
表2-5-2不同知識階段的知識移轉程度與方法…………………..44
表3-1-1知識移轉整合模式的變數與定義……………………….72
表4-5-1動態改變的原因、目的、自變數與應變數………………113
表4-6-1改變合作型態的報償表:累計成本差異…………………117
表5-3-1石化業個案分析…………………………………………..155
表5-3-2半導體業個案分析………………………………………..152
表6-3-1迴歸分析階段與預期變數影響方向……………………..166
表6-4-1構念的因素構成與因素負荷……………………………..169
表6-4-2研究構念與操作性定義…………………………………..170
表6-5-1問卷發放與樣本回收統計表……………………………..171
表6-5-2樣本公司所屬產業………………………………………..172
表6-5-3樣本公司營業額…………………………………………..173
表6-5-4移轉知識類型……………………………………………..174
表6-5-5受訪者的合作經驗─最長合作期間……………………..175
表6-5-6受訪者的合作經驗─合作個案數目……………………..175
表6-5-7受訪者的職位分析………………………………………..176
表6-5-8受訪者的產業經驗分析…………………………………..176
表6-6-1吸收能力對移轉難度認知之迴歸分析…………………..178
表6-6-2廠商吸收能力差距對移轉難度認知差距之迴歸分析…..178
表6-6-3知識特性:內隱性、複雜性、連續性的相關係數…………179
表6-6-4知識特性變數的因素負荷………………………………..180
表6-6-5AB知識的吸收能力與移轉難度認知的迴歸分析………181
表6-6-6A,B知識的內隱性、複雜性、連續性差異次數分配…..183
表6-6-7吸收能力、知識特性與移轉難度認知之間的迴歸分析…184
表6-7-1 難度不同的知識在不同移轉深度下的人員互動程度比較…………………………………………………………..189
表6-7-2不同移轉深度下不同難度知識的人員互動程度比較…..189
表6-7-3移轉績效目標的虛擬變數………………………………..190
表6-7-4難度認知與移轉績效目標對移轉機制的人員互動程度之影響……………………………………………………..191
表6-8-1社會資本與人員互動程度對合作型態內部化程度的迴歸模型…………………………………………………...194
表6-8-2相關係數表………………………………………………..196
表7-1-1研究命題統計結果彙總表………………………………..199
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