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研究生:陽和剛
論文名稱:克里米亞半島歸屬問題之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Crimean Problem: The Issue of Crimean Tatars Self-Determination
指導教授:周陽山周陽山引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:俄羅斯研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:371
中文關鍵詞:想像共同體自決族群認同歷史權利分離主義國家地位
外文關鍵詞:imagined communitiesself-determinationethic identityhistoric rightsseparatismstatehood
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克里米亞半島歸屬問題之探討
研究生:陽和剛 撰
摘 要
對於俄羅斯與烏克蘭而言,由於兩國之間長久以來極為密切的歷史與文化關係,因此始終難以接受蘇聯瓦解之事實。迄今,許多俄羅斯人依然視基輔為羅斯民族之出生地,且不認為烏克蘭是一個主權獨立的國家。更確切的說,俄羅斯人認為基輔羅斯乃是導引東正教與俄語進入俄國之發祥地。儘管俄烏之間具有不可割捨的兄弟之情,但當兩個民族或想像共同體對於其彼此疆界、文化等存有歧見時,則仍無法避免各種紛至沓來的紛爭問題。就克里米亞之黑海艦隊為例,顯示俄烏對於塞瓦斯托波爾城之想像共同體的重疊。同時,亦攸關俄烏兩國對於領土與心理疆界,產生必須且窘困的界定過程。
克里米亞半島素有黑海”鑰匙”之稱,不但是烏克蘭通往世界之大門,亦是各國經黑海進入東歐和亞洲的良港。由於其戰略位置之重要性,致使各種不同的政治勢必,紛紛介入克里米亞半島領土歸屬問題。蘇聯崩解後,克里米亞半島動盪不安的情勢,已造成黑海地區俄羅斯與烏克蘭雙邊關係之威脅,並儼然形成如同納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫或阿布卡齊亞緊張衝突之溫床。克里米亞在蘇聯繼承國家之中,雖然尚不足以列入族裔衝突之範疇。但隨著反對國家之間領土紛爭的自決主張之聲浪,及自蘇聯時期懸而未決的軍事政治問題遺緒之情況下。致使克里米亞問題,成為俄烏兩國與國際緊張關係之焦點。
簡言之,克里米亞問題之根源在於其地區的人口分佈與地緣政治歷史。一九四四年,史達林以串通納粹敵國之罪名,將所有克里米亞韃靼人(約二十萬人)集體驅逐遷往中亞地區。截至一九八O年代末期,在近五十年漫長歲月中,克里米亞韃靼人不但其基本文化權及族群認同遭到否決,甚至於在蘇聯的人口統計資料中,未曾出現克里米亞韃靼人。蘇聯瓦解後,克里米亞始終受到兩方面重疊勢力的控制:其一、克里米亞共和國當局,與要求承認其歷史及領土權利的克里米亞韃靼人;其二、尋求獨立並要求回歸俄羅斯的克里米亞共和國親俄領導人士,及反對克里米亞分離主義之烏克蘭當局。這些勢力圍繞著一個相同的基本政治問題:誰擁有克里米亞半島之主權?就目前情勢而論,克里米亞韃靼積極份子要求承認其國家地位;然而,克里米亞境內及外在的敵對勢力,則頗不以為然。無庸置疑,歷史爭論與目前克里米亞的情勢發展,實乃息息相關。
關鍵詞:想像共同體、自決、族群認同、歷史權利、分離主義、國家地位
The Crimean Problem: The Issue of Crimean Tatars Self-Determination
Ho-Gang Yang
Abstract
For Russians and Ukrainians, the disintegration of the Soviet Union has been particularly difficult due to the extremely close historical and cultural ties between the two countries. Many Russians still view Kyiv as the birthplace of their nation(Rus’)and do not conceive of Ukraine as an independent country. Rather, they think of it as Kievan Rus’, the land that brought the Orthodox Christian religion and the Russian language to Russia. As relations between Russia and Ukraine reveal, however, problems can arise when two imagined communities, or nations, disagree over the boundaries(cultural or otherwise)that distinguish them. In the case of the Black Sea Fleet dispute, the imagined communities of Russia and Ukraine overlap at Sevastopol.
Throughout Crimea’s complicated history, the peninsula’s strategic location on the Black Sea has made it a desirable military outpost and warm-water port, leading to territorial claims by a great variety of political forces. Since the demise of the Soviet Union, the unstable situation in Crimea has threatened to turn the Black Sea region of Russia and Ukraine into a hotbed of tension similar to Nagorno-Karabakh or Abkhazia. While the Crimea still cannot be listed among the numerous areas of violent ethno-political conflict in the Soviet successor states, it has recently become a focus of domestic and international tension, with conflicting self-determination claims voiced against a background of interstate territorial disputes and an unsettled legacy of military-political issues from the Soviet period.
Simply put, the conflict over Crimea has its roots in the region’s demographic and geopolitical history. In 1944, accused of collaboration with the Nazi invaders, the entire Crimean Tatar population(by then some 200,000)was deported, mostly to Central Asia. For over forty years, Crimean Tatars were denied basic cultural rights and even an ethic identity; until the 1980s, Crimean Tatars never appeared in Soviet population statistics. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea has been the object of two overlapping rivalries for control: first between the Crimean Republic authorities and the Crimean Tatars, who demand recognition of their historic and territorial rights to the peninsula; and second between pro-Russian leaders of the Crimean Republic, who want either independence or reunification of the peninsula with Russia, and the Ukrainian authorities, who oppose Crimean separatism and insist that Crimea remain an integral part of Ukraine. These movements revolve around the same basic political question: who has sovereignty over the Crimean peninsula? Presently, Crimean Tatar activists regard the Crimean ASSR as a recognition of Crimean Tatar statehood, while their opponents in the Crimea and beyond are convinced that the autonomous formation was purely administrative. The historical controversy is, of course, highly relevant to the present situation in the Crimea.
Keywords: imagined communities, self-determination, ethic identity, historic rights, separatism, statehood
目 錄
第一章 緒 論 3
第一節 研究動機………………………………………………17
第二節 研究方法………………………………………………26
第三節 研究論點………………………………………………44
第四節 文獻檢閱………………………………………………55
第五節 本章小結………………………………………………69
第二章 解構克里米亞領土歸屬問題之背景 75
第一節 從克里米亞問題的歷史脈絡分析……………………75
第二節 從勢力與權利的立場分析……………………………111
第三節 從克里米亞韃靼人自決的立場分析…………………131
第四節 一九五四年克里米亞讓渡問題………………………148
第五節 本章小結………………………………………………167
第三章 俄烏與克里米亞領土歸屬問題之糾葛 170
第一節 俄羅斯與烏克蘭對立的心結……………………………171
第二節 俄羅斯與烏克蘭領土疆域紛爭之歷史背景……………182
第三節 烏克蘭的民族神話與領土主張…………………………186
第四節 克里米亞的韃靼民族回歸運動…………………………192
第五節 本章小結…………………………………………………215
第四章 影響克里米亞領土歸屬問題之因素 219
第一節 蘇聯民族政策之社會歷史背景……………………219
第二節 蘇聯解體後烏克蘭民族意識的勃興………………229
第三節 大俄羅斯主義與克里米亞領土主權之關係………235
第四節 俄羅斯民族主義與「新民族主義」之影響………243
第五節 本章小結……………………………………………285
第五章 克里米亞問題對烏俄雙邊關係之潛在威脅290
第一節 克里米亞族際關係與韃靼激進主義………………290
第二節 烏俄雙邊利益衝突與認同危機……………………300
第三節 後共產主義民族主義之擴展與影響………………315
第四節 烏俄兩國對克里米亞領土衝突問題之處理………323
第五節 本章小結……………………………………………334
第六章 結 論 336
第一節 研究發現……………………………………………336
第二節 檢討與建議…………………………………………348
參考書目 351
參考書目
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二、英文部份
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(二)期刊文章
Armstrong, John A.
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