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研究生:蔡佳津
論文名稱:自閉症兒童臉孔情緒處理之研究
指導教授:曾志朗曾志朗引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:自閉症臉部表情人臉辨識
外文關鍵詞:autismfacial expressionface recognition
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:26
  • 點閱點閱:2064
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:274
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
臨床上我們觀察到:自閉症患者在社會互動上有明顯障礙。因此,我們企圖在這個大問題下,以社會互動中最主要的訊息來源─臉部表情為出發點,探討自閉症者所知覺的世界中,他們如何處理臉部表情所展現的情緒訊息及社會意義。
我們知道:臉孔辨識歷程與一般物體辨識歷程不盡相同而有其特性。相較於一般物體,臉孔辨識更需依賴對輪廓構型訊息的有效掌握。因此,本研究企圖回答以下問題:「自閉症患者在辨識他人臉部表情上是否有所缺陷」?如果是的話,(1)「自閉症患者在辨識他人臉部表情上的缺陷係因臉孔辨識的機制上有所缺陷嗎」?還是(2)「自閉症患者在辨識他人臉部表情上的缺陷是因從他人臉部表情讀取情緒訊息上有所困難」?本研究試圖以人臉辨識與表情辨識的差異性,並改良過去研究在方法學上的爭議以回答這兩個問題。
實驗一「人臉辨識」作業以立即比對作業與延宕配對作業,檢驗自閉症組、發展遲緩組、一般兒童組及成人組其在物體與臉孔之倒立效果。研究結果顯示:除了自閉症組外,三組受試者在人臉辨識的作業表現上,都有相當穩定的臉孔倒立效果,自閉症組的臉孔倒立效果顯著地較其它三組小,而在物體辨識上與常人無異,此與「中樞連貫缺陷」假設相符應:自閉症患者在高層次知覺的困難在於他們無法從環境中將訊息加以整合,擅於以局部特徵來理解,並認為這是使他們產生較小的臉孔倒立效果之因。實驗一顯示:自閉症患者的確「在辨識他人臉部表情上有所困難」,卻「並非因其在臉孔辨識的機制上有所缺陷」。
因此,我們第二個研究問題即是:「自閉症患者在辨識他人臉部表情上的缺陷是因從他人臉部表情讀取情緒訊息上有所困難嗎」?因此,實驗二以同一組臉孔刺激材料,以人臉辨識與情緒辨識作業,以探討自閉症組、一般兒童組與發展遲緩組的作業表現。從實驗二所得到的結果也支持這樣的看法。在實驗二的「人臉辨識」作業中,要求受試者對目標人臉進行辨識時,三組受試者所受到的「臉部表情干擾效果」並無顯著差異。但在實驗二的「表情辨識」作業中,當要求受試者對目標情緒進行辨識時便發現:自閉症組在辨識臉部表情上的缺陷,極大部分是發生在辨識不同人的表情變化情境下。而之所以自閉症患者在辨識同一人的表情相同與否表現較佳,依據「中樞連貫缺陷」假設的看法則認為,自閉症患者使用他們擅長以局部特徵瞭解整體的能力克服在他們在處理作業上的困難。此外,實驗二對兩作業表現的比較結果亦支持:大腦對於辨識人臉以及辨識情緒顯示是由不同的系統進行處理。
本研究的兩個實驗,我們可以清楚地回答:自閉症患者在辨識他人臉部表情上的困難確實非因臉孔辨識的機制上有所缺陷而是從他人臉部表情讀取並理解情緒訊息上有所困難,尤其是發生在辨識不同人的表情變化情境下。而之所以自閉症患者在辨識同一人的表情表現較佳,是因為自閉症患者使用其擅長以局部特徵瞭解整體的能力克服在他們在處理作業上的困難。而自閉症患者在這些作業中的種種行為表現,都得到「中樞連貫缺陷」假設的支持。
緒論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
有關臉孔表徵的一些假設‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
臉孔辨識是否與物體辨識有別‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧8
臉孔倒立效果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧15
自閉症的定義與診斷標準‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
自閉症患者在瞭解他人臉部情緒意義上的障礙‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
預備性研究一‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧36
預備性研究二‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧38
實驗一‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧40
方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧41
結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧45
討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧66
實驗二‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧70
方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧71
結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧73
討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧83
綜合討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧87
參考文獻
一 中文部分
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宋維村(民85)。自閉症診斷的演進及其在教育上的意義。教師天地,73,22-28。
楊宗仁(民87)。自閉症研究的新趨勢。特教新知通訊,5(5),4-6。
二 英文部分
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宋維村(民85)。自閉症診斷的演進及其在教育上的意義。教師天地,73,22-28。
楊宗仁(民87)。自閉症研究的新趨勢。特教新知通訊,5(5),4-6。
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), American Psychiatric Association.
Barry, C., Johnston, R. A., & Scanlan, L. C. (1998). Are faces "special" objects ?associative and semantic priming of face and object recognition and naming. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5/A (4), 853-882.
Bemporad, J. R. (1979). Adult recollections of a formerly autistic child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 179-197.
Bradshaw, J. L., & Wallace, G. (1971). Models for the processing and identification of faces. Perception and Psychophsics, 9, 443-448.
Braverman, M. (1986). Cognitive measures of affect competence in pervasive developmental disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston, MA.
Braverman, M. Fein, D., Lucci, D. & Waterhouse, L. (1989). Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental disorders, 19, 301-316.
Bruce, V. & Young, A. W. (1986). Understanding face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 305-327.
Bruce, V. (1988). Recognizing faces. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Asscociates Ltd.
Bruyer, R. & Velge, V. (1981). Lesions cérébrale unilaterale et trouble de la perception des visages: Specificité du déficit? Acta Neurological Belgica, 81, 321-332.
Celani, G., Battacchi, M. W., & Arcidiacono, L. (1999). The understanding of the emotional meaning of facial expressions in people with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 29(1), 57-66.
Clark, V. P., Keil, K., Maisog, J. M., Courtney, S. M., Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (1996). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human visual cortex during face matching: a comparison with positron emission topography (PET). Neuroimage, 4, 1-15.
Cole, J. (約拿罕‧柯爾,民87). About face: a natural history of the face, and an unnatural history of those who live without it.(沒有臉孔的人,何穎怡譯)。台北:新新聞。(原著出版年:1998年)
Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H. & Van Hoesen, G. W. (1982). Prosopagnosia: Anatomic basis and behavioral mechanisms. Neurology, 32, 331-341.
Diamond, R. & Carey, S. (1986). Why faces are and are not special: An effect of expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 107-117.
de Gelder, B., Bachoud-Levi, A. C., & Degos, J. D. (1998). Inversion superiority in visual agnosia may be common to a variety of orientation polarized objects besides faces. Vision Research. 38, 2855-2861.
de Gelder, B., & Rouw, R. (2000). Configural face processes in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia: evidence for two separate face systems ? Neuroreport: an International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience, 11(14), 3145-3150.
de Gelder, B., Vroomen, J., & van der Heide, L. (1991). Face recognition and lip-reading in autism. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 3, 69-86.
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