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研究生:林正杰
研究生(外文):Jerry C.C. Lin
論文名稱:我國石化業技術管理研究
論文名稱(外文):The Technology Management of Petrochemical Industry in Taiwan
指導教授:吳豐祥吳豐祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):F.S. Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:經營管理碩士學程
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:技術管理技術策略技術組織組織學習石化業技術管理績效
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我國石化業自六0年代萌芽,於七十年代蓬勃發展,至1999年整個石化業的產值達18,610億,佔所有製造業的24.9%。雖然近年來,資訊電子業的興起,環保意識的抬頭讓石化業遭逢前所未有的困境,但是,仍有些企業經營的還不錯,持續投入科技的創新,不斷擴充業務,新產品不斷推出,獲利增加。
本研究以我國石化業為研究對象,從技術管理的觀點,特別從技術策略、技術組織、組織學習等幾個方面分別探討其考量與作法並探討其與技術管理績效的關係。研究結果顯示如下:
一、在技術組織面
國內石化業大部份使用跨功能團隊的方式在進行研究,而其結構從輕量級團隊、重量級團隊到自主性團隊均有。少數企業讓研發人員將一項新產品自產品創意階段一直負責到新產品的生產上市,而且研發人員就成為該事業部的負責人,此措施對研發人員是相當大的鼓勵。另部份較小型企業針對某一項很重要的新產品則採用老虎團隊的模式由CEO親自領導團隊,成效良好。
大部份石化業對技術人員均採用雙階制度,如此技術人員可以循著技術階梯升遷,不必受到管理階梯職缺的影響而升遷無門。有效的激勵措施和技術管理績效有絕對的關係,尤其是對於新產品的開發成功應適當的給予獎金或分紅措施,而對於專利也應酌情發給獎金。
二、在技術策略方面
我國石化業的技術主從策略大致相同,在全球來看都是一個跟隨者,但國內來說則視產品別不同而有所不同的策略,所以技術主從策略和整個技術管理績效的關係並不明確。
我國石化業大部份其基礎技術均來自國外先進大廠,研發單位則專注於製程改善及基礎技術的衍生技術,從而開發新產品。但也有部份業者自設立公司之初即訂定自行研發的策略,至今成績斐然。
三、組織學習
一般而言,國內石化業均經ISO認證通過,內部紀錄相當完整。而經驗分享對於技術管理績效影響非常大,目前分享的方式都是以內部討論的方式為之; 但已有少數業者開始注意到以內部網路建設其知識管理架構,這對於將來經驗傳承與分享定有很大的幫助。
四、在技術策略方面
我國石化業的技術策略大致相同,在全球來看都是一個跟隨者,但國內來說則視產品別不同而有所不同的策略,所以技術主從策略和整個技術管理績效的關係並不明確。
我國石化業大部份其基礎技術均來自國外先進大廠,研發單位則專注於製程改善即基礎技術的衍生技術,從而開發新產品。但也有部份業者自設立公司之初即訂定自行研發的策略,至今成績斐然。
五、組織學習
(一)一般而言,國內石化業均經ISO認證通過,內部紀錄相當完整。
(二)經驗分享對於技術管理績效影響非常大,目前分享的方式都是以內部討論的方式為之。
(三)少數業者已開始注意到以內部網路建設其知識管理架構,這對於將來經驗傳承與分享定有很大的幫助。
The entire investing condition changed and the arising of environment consciousness caused continuous protest events. It is difficult to obtain the land for building petrochemical plant. The average wages are increasing rapidly . The booming of information technology and electronic related industries in recent years affect technical people’s willingness to work in these industries. All these factors resulted in suffering of petrochemical industry in difficult situation that did not happen before.
Nevertheless, some enterprises are still running in good status by continuously investing in technical development, expanding business, and launching new products in the market . Therefore, this research is aiming on the viewpoint of technical management, particularly on technical strategy, organization, employee encouragement, and organization learning aspects to investigate technical management situation, and their connection with technical management performance.
Research Objectives
This thesis tries to investigate the technology management of petrochemical industry in Taiwan with the following research objectives:
(一)What are the technical organization patterns in our petrochemical industry?
(二)What are the technology strategy in our petrochemical industry?
(三)What is the way of organizational learning in technical and research department in petrochemical industry?
(四)What are the relationships among technology strategy, technology organization, organization learning and technology management performance?
Research Framework
According to literature review, we can find that there exist close relationships among technology strategy, technical organization, organization learning and technology management performance. Thus, the research framework is as follows:
Case Selection
For the purpose of case analysis, the researcher chooses six companies for case study. The cases are as follows:
Industry Chemicals Plastics Rubber
Company A B C D E F
CompanyScale Large Middle Large Middle Large Small
Inter-viewee Technical Dept.Leader Technical Dept.Leader Technical Dept.Leader Technical Dept.Leader AssistantV.P. AssistantV.P.
Research Methodology
This thesis adopts the case study by using direct in-depth manager’s interview. Before interviewing, the author would collect related data and information of every enterprise in advance.
Case Analysis and Conclusions
According to the analyses of the six cases, the following conclusions are withdrawn:
1. Technical Organization
n Most of the local petrochemical producers have the cross-functional teams, including the light weight team, heavy weight team and the autonomous team to do the research work.
n A few enterprises allow research people to be in charge of a new product development from the stage of idea creation till production and on the market, and this research people will become the chief of the division. This measure offers great encouragement for research people.
n A portion of small enterprises adopt “Tiger Team” mode led by CEO focusing on a certain important new product and the performance is excellent.
n Most of petrochemical industry adopt “Dual Ladder system” for technicians. Under this system, the technicians can be promoted through technical ladder and will not be affected by management system vacancy.
n Effective encouragement is strongly associated with the performance of technical management, especially offering proper prize or bonus for the successful development of new products. As for patents, the prize according to the situation should be offered too.
2. Technical Strategy
n The technical strategies of most petrochemical firms in Taiwan are almost the same. In global view, they are followers. However , in our domestic viewpoints, the strategies are varied depends on different products. Therefore, the connection between technology leader/follower strategy and the whole technical management performance is not specific.
n Most of the fundamental know-how of petrochemical industry in Taiwan are from foreign leader companies. Research and development department concentrates on production process improvement first, and then upgrade the level for new product development. But there are some other companies define very clearly its’ own self development strategy, and the outcome appears excellent till now.
3. Organization Learning
n Generally speaking, domestic petrochemical companies are ISO approved and have complete internal records.
n Experience sharing affects greatly on the performance of technical management. The current sharing method is mainly conducted by internal discussion.
n A few companies have recognized to set up their knowledge management frame through intranet. It will be much helpful for experience sharing in future.
摘 要 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I~II
第一章 緒 論 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
第一節 研究動機 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
第二節 研究問題- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
第三節 研究流程- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
第四節 各章內容- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4
第二章 文獻探討 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
第一節 研發組織型式- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
第二節 激勵 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
第三節 技術策略- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11
第四節 研發組織學習- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16
第五節 技術發管理績效的衡量- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - 19
第三章 研究架構與方法 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21
第一節 研究架構- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21
第二節 研究方法- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22
第四章 我國石化產業介紹 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25
第一節 我國石化基本原料現況- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
第二節 塑膠原料市場現況- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31
第三節 橡膠原料市場現況- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34
第四節 人纖原料市場現況- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 36
第五節 當前石化業的困境- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - 38
第五章 個案研究結果與討論 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
第一節 A公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
第二節 B公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48
第三節 C公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 53
第四節 D公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59
第五節 E公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 65
第六節 F公司 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 73
第七節 結果彙總與討論 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79
第六章 結論與建議 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88
第一節 結 論- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88
第二節 對我國石化業的建議 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90
第三節 對後續研究的建議- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94
參考文獻 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 95
一、 英文部分
1 Aken, Joan E. and Weggeman, Mathieu P. (2000). “Managing Learning in Informal Innovation Networks: Overcoming the Daphhe-Dilemma”, R&D Management, Vol.30,No.2, PP.139-149.
2 Arimura, Sadanori (1999). “How Matsushita Electric and Sony Manage Global R&D”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.42, No.2,PP.41-52.
3 Bean, Alden S. and Russo, M. Jean and Whiteley, Roger L.(2000). “Benchmarking your R&D: Results from IIRI/CIMS Annual R&D Survey for FY ‘98”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.43, No.1,PP.16-25.
4 Bernasco, Wilma and Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C and Tillema, Harry and Boer, Harry. (1999). “Balanced Matrix Structure and New Product Development Process at TI Materials and Controls Division”, R&D Management, Vol.29,No.2, PP. 121-131.
5 Bone, Steve and Saxon, Time (2000). “Developing Effective Technology Strategy”, ResearchžTechnology Management, Vol. 43,No.4, PP.50-58.
6 Brown, Mark G. and Svenson, Raynold A. (1998). “Measuring R&D Productivity”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.41 ,No.6, PP.30-35.
7 Cooper, Robert G. (1995). “Developing New Products on Time, in Time”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.38,No.5, PP.49-57.
8 Cooper, Robert G. and Edgett, Scott J. and Kleinschmidt Elko J. (1998). “Best Practices for Managing R&D Portfolios”, Research ž Technology Management , Vol.41,No.4, PP.20-33.
9 Davidson, Jeffrey M. and Clamen, Allen and Karol, Robin A. (1999) “Learning From the Best New Product Developers”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol. 42,No.4, PP. 12-18。
10 Dressler, Ronald and Wood, Robert S. and Alvarez, Vincent (1999). “Evluating R&D Performance Using the Cost Savings Metric”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.42,No.2, PP.13-14.
11 Drongelen, Inge C.K. and Bilderbeek, Jan (1999). R&D Performance Measurement: More than choosing a set of Matrics”, R&D Management, Vol.29,No.1, PP.35-46.
12 Farrukh, Clare and Phaal, Rob and Probert, David and Gregory, Mike and Wright, John (2000). “Developing a process for the Relative Valuation of R&D Programmes”, R&D Management, Vol.30,No.1, PP.43-53.
13 Graves, Samuel B. and Ringuest Jeffrey L. and Case, Randolph H. (2000). “Formulating Optimal R&D Portfolios, Research ž Technology Management, Vol. 43,No.3, PP. 47-51.
14 Gupta, Ashok K. and Souder, William E. (1998) “Key Drivers of Reduced Cycle Time”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.41, No.4,PP.38-43.
15 Hansen, Kent F. and Weiss, Malcolm A. and Kwak , Sangman (1999). “Allocating R&D Resources :A Quantitative Aid to Management Insight”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.42,No.4, PP. 44-50.
16 Hauptman, Oscar and Hirji, Karim K. (1999). “Managing Integration and Coordination in Cross-Functional Teams: an International Study of Concurrent Engineering Product Development”, R&D Management, Vol. 29,No.2, PP.179-191.
17 Hippel, Eric von and Thomke, Stefan and Sonnack, Mary (1999) “Creating Breakthroughs at 3M”, Harvard Business Review, Vol.77, No.5,PP.47~57。
18 Inge C. Kerssens - Van Drongelen, Petra C. de Weerd-Nederhof and olaf A.M.Fisscher (1996) “Describing the Issues of Knowledge Management in R&D: Towards a Communication and Analysis Tool”, R&D Management, Vol.26,No.3, PP.213~229
19 Jankowski, John E. (1998). “R&D:Foundation for Innovation”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol. 41,No.2, PP.14-27.
20 Jones, Oswald and Stevens, Gary (1999). “Evaluation Failure in the Innovation Process: the Micropolitics of New Product Development”, R&D Management, Vol.29,No.2, PP.167-178.
21 Katz R. & Tushman M.(1997) “A study of Influence of Technical Gatekeeping on Project Performance and Career Outcomes in R & D Facility”, The Human Side of Managing Technological Innovation.
22 Kessler, Eric H. and Bierly, Paul E. and Gopalakrishnan, Shanthi (2000). “Internal vs. External Learning in New Product Development Effects on Speed, Cost and Competitive Advantage”, R&D Management, Vol.30,No.3, PP.213-223.
23 Kfir, Rivka (2000). “A Framework, Process and tool for Managing Technology, Based Assets”, R&D Management, Vol. 30,No.4, PP.297-305.
24 Kim B. Clark & Steven C. Wheelwright, (1992) “Organizing and Leading Heavy weight Development Teams”, California management Review, Vol.34, No.3, PP.201-214.
25 Lester, Don H. (1998). “Critical Success Factors for New Product Development”, ResearchžTechnology Management, Vol.41,No.1, PP.36-43.
26 Lynn, Gary S and Mazzuca, Mario and Morone, Joseph G. and Paulson, Albert S. (1998). “Learning is the Critical Success Factor in Developing Truly New Products”, ResearchžTechnology Management,Vol. 41,No.3, PP 45-51.
27 Lynn, Gary S. and Reilly, Richard. R (2000). “Measuring Team Performance”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.43,No.2, PP. 48-56。
28 Miyazaki, Kumiko (1999). “Building Technology Competencies in Japanese Firms”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.42,No.5, PP.39-45。
29 Norling, Parry M. and Herring, Jan P. and Rosenkrans, Wayne A. and Stellpflug, Jr. Marcia and Kaufman, Stephen B.(2000). “Putting Competitive Technology Intelligence to work”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.43,No.5, PP. 23-29.
30 O’Brien Thomas C. and Fadem, Terry J. (1999). “Identifying New Business Opportunities”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.42, No.5,PP.15-19.
31 Risher, Howard (2000). “Compensating Today’s Technical Professional”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.43,No.1, PP. 50-56.
32 Tritle, Gary L. and Scriven Eric F.V. and Fusfeld, Alan R. (2000). “Resolving Uncertainty in R&D Portfolios”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol. 43,No.6, PP.47-55.
33 Whiteley, Roger and Parish, Trueman and Dressler, Ronald and Nicholson, Geoffrey (1998). “Evaluating R&D Performance Using the New Sales Ratio”, Research ž Technology Management, Vol.41, No.5,PP.20-22.
中文部份
1.陳韻如 (民85),台灣地區產業年報-石化業,中華徵信所。
2.謝俊雄 (民 90),中華民國的石油化學工業-2000,台灣區石油化學工業同業公會。
3.--- (民89),A公司公開說明書,A公司。
4.--- (民 89),A公司簡介及產品介紹,A公司。
5.--- (民 86),B公司產品一覽表,B公司。
6.--- (民89),B公司簡介,B公司
7.--- (民87),C公司簡介,C公司。
8.--- (民 89),C公司年報,C公司。
9.--- (民 89),D公司年報,D公司。
10.---(民 89),E公司年報,E公司。
11.---(民 89),F公司年報,F公司。
12.---(民 87),F公司產品介紹,F公司。
13.賴士葆等 (民 86),科技管理,國立空中大學
頁:203-235,420-428。
14. 湯瑪斯ž史都華,宋偉航譯(民88),智慧資本,智庫文化。
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