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研究生:徐琳媛
研究生(外文):Shue. Lin Yuan
論文名稱:質材之添加對強酸性土壤肥力的改良效應
論文名稱(外文):Effect on the fertility of an acid soil through application of different amendments
指導教授:陳仁炫陳仁炫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen-Hshuan Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土壤環境科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:強酸性土壤剖面鋁的毒害鈣的不足
外文關鍵詞:acidity soil profile
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在熱帶和亞熱帶地區,底土酸性常為限制深根性作物之生長因子之一,故強酸性土壤的剖面酸性之改良,為提昇作物生育及品質的重要舉措。本文之目的在於瞭解本省強酸性土壤的剖面性質,並評估表層施用不同改良質材對強酸性關西土壤剖面酸性及低肥力的改良效果,期能建立適當的改良對策。
本研究先針對三種強酸性土壤(大肚山、后里及關西)進行剖面特性之調查,次選取交換性鋁含量較高,交換性鈣含量較低,且全層土壤性質較接近的關西土壤進行改良試驗,以管柱分層方式模擬關西土壤之土壤剖面,再分別於土壤之表層10公分土壤以六種質材處理(石灰、石膏、雞糞堆肥、石灰加雞糞堆肥、石膏加雞糞堆肥、石灰加石膏)予以混和,各處理以提供相同鈣量為基準,並設一對照組,並配合三要素肥料(尿素、過磷酸鈣、氯化鉀)的撒施,之後進行每日的淋洗,持續45天。結果顯示,添加改良質材均可增加土壤交換性鈣含量和減少交換性鋁的含量,唯改良的土壤深度依改良資材之不同而異;其中石灰的改良效果較侷限於表層土壤範圍,石膏則可改良較深之土層,尤其是石膏加雞糞堆肥之處理改良的效果較顯著。對於土壤肥力的提昇,含堆肥之處理(包括雞糞堆肥、石灰加雞糞堆肥、石膏加雞糞堆肥),由於雞糞堆肥本身含有作物所需的養分,故可有效提昇表層10公分內土壤之氮含量和磷有效性,且可增加土壤剖面鉀、鎂和鈉有效性。化學質材之處理(包括石灰、石膏、石灰加石膏)在提昇土壤剖面之全氮和磷有效性的效果甚有限,且造成土壤剖面鉀、鎂和鈉濃度的降低,顯示在磷固定能力強及pH偏低之強酸性土壤若僅施以一般施肥推薦量,將造成部份養分有效性偏低的問題。藉由本試驗結果之評估,以石膏加雞糞堆肥之處理對改善強酸性土壤剖面之酸性和增進肥力之效果最佳。在田間實施改良策略時,若能配合耕犁及合宜的肥培管理,將可更有效地改善強酸性土壤剖面之酸度及肥力。
Subsoil acidity is one of the serious problems to crop production in the humid and subhumid tropics, therefore, the amelioration of acid soil profile is an important practice for improving the yield and quality of crops. The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of acid soil profiles in Taiwan, and to evaluate the effects on the acidity and fertility of the acid soil profile through surface application of different amendments.
This study was first to survey the properties of three acid soils (Da-Do Shan, Hou-Li, and Huan-Si soils). Huan-Si soil was selected for the amelioration study due to the higher exchangeable Al, lower exchangeable Ca, and the similarity properties with soil depths. The way of column section was to simulate the soil profile in Huan-Si soil. Different amendments (lime, gypsum, chicken compost, lime and chicken compost, gypsum and chicken compost, lime and gypsum) were mixed with the top 10 cm soil of each column. Each treatment was conducted to provide the same amount of Ca, and one black treatment was also done. Then each treatments were applied with CO(NH2), Ca(H2PO4)2, KCl based on the fertilizer recommendation for a young citrus tree, and leached every day during 45 day. Results showed that each amendments can increase the content of exchangeable Ca and decrease the content of exchangeable Al of the soil, however, the effect of amelioration of soil depths varied with different kinds of amendments. The effect of amelioration by surface-applied lime was found to limit in incorporated zone, gypsum addition had a deeper effect, however, gypsum with chicken compost treatment had effective amelioration to deeper soil depth. Due to chicken compost contains some nutrients, so all compost treatments (chicken compost, lime with chicken compost, gypsum with chicken compost) were effective in increasing total N and P availabilities in top 10 cm soil, and increased the contents of K, Mg, and Na in each profile of the soil. The total N content and P availability in soil profile were not significantly change in chemical treatments (lime, gypsum, lime with gypsum), but the contents of K, Mg and Na in the soil profile with adding lime and/or gypsum. It indicated that if the general amount of fertilizer recommended were applied to acid soil with strong P fixing capacity and lower pH, the acid soil might induce the problem of nutrient deficiency. It concluded that the combination of gypsum with chicken compost addition had the most effective effect on correcting the problems of low pH and low fertility in soil profile of strongly acid soil.
摘要Ⅰ
英文摘要Ⅲ
目錄Ⅴ
圖次Ⅶ
表次Ⅷ
前言1
前人研究2
(一)本省強酸性土壤的分佈2
(二)酸性土壤問題所在2
(三)強酸性土壤剖面酸性之改良5
1.石灰質材在剖面酸性之改良效應6
2.石膏質材在剖面酸性之改良效應7
3.有機質材在剖面酸性之改良效應8
材料與方法11
Ⅰ.試驗材料
一、供試土壤11
二、改良質材11
三、供試肥料種類11
Ⅱ.試驗步驟11
Ⅲ測定方法13
一、土壤性質的測定13
二、供試有機肥料14
結果與討論22
一、三種強酸性土壤之部分基本性質的剖面分佈22
二、不同質材對強酸性土壤剖面酸性及肥力的改良效應
(1)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面pH之改良效應27
(2)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面鈣有效性的影響34
(3)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面鋁有效性的影響40
(4)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面有機質的影響47
(5)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面鉀、鎂和鈉有效性的影響49
(6)改良質材對強酸性土壤剖面氮、磷的影響61
結論67
參考文獻69
附錄81
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