(3.236.222.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 20:24
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張臻穎
研究生(外文):Chang Chen Yin
論文名稱:不同肥料對玉米根圈螢光假單胞菌之效應
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Fertilizers on Fluorescent Pseudomonads in Maize Rhizosphere
指導教授:趙震慶趙震慶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土壤環境科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:螢光假單胞菌根圈肥料
外文關鍵詞:fluorescent pseudomonadsrhizospherefertilizer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:234
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
螢光假單胞菌(fluorescent pseudomonads)存在植物根圈中或根系表面,扮演礦化及增進作物生長等角色,與植物生長具有直接的相關性。施用不同種類肥料所產生之效應,可能會影響土壤環境與根系分泌作用,以及調控根圈微生物群落之組成。本研究之目的在分析比較施用不同種類肥料對根圈螢光假單胞菌族群組成之效應,期瞭解不同肥料對根圈微生物群落之衝擊。本實驗以分析各分離株之生化反應與核酸鹽基組成來比較施用化學肥料與豬糞堆肥對根圈螢光假單胞菌群落中族群組成之效應,以不施肥料為對照處理。分離株經Biolog GN鑑定系統測定結果顯示,施用化肥之玉米根圈篩選出的優勢螢光假單胞菌群落,由三種螢光假單胞菌組成主為Pseudomonas putida biotype A、 Pseudomonas putida biotype B與Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G,而施用豬糞堆肥之玉米根圈由五種螢光假單胞菌組成:Pseudomonas putida biotype A、 Pseudomonas putida biotype B、Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G、Pseudomona fulva與Pseudomona maculicola,其中以Pseudomonas putida biotype A為主要菌種。對照組之玉米根圈亦由五種螢光假單胞菌組成:Pseudomonas putida biotype A、 Pseudomonas putida biotype B、Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G、Pseudomona fuscovaginae與Pseudomona viridilida,以Pseudomonas fuscovagina群落佔優勢。另外分別以限制酵素Alu Ι、Hae ΠΙ、Rsa Ι與Taq Ι進行根圈螢光假單胞菌增幅之16S rDNA 限制酵素片段分(ARDRA),其中僅Rsa Ι所顯示結果與Biolog GN 平板測定結果相似。由上述結果得知,在同一種
土壤種植同種作物,施用不同肥料會造成根圈微生物群落組成之更動。

Abstract
The fluorescent pseudomonads existing in the rhizosphere and surface of root systems works as mineralization, and improving plant growing is known. On the other hand, we believe that the results of using various kind of fertilizers will effect on the environment of soil and secretion of root systems. The purpose of this study was to realize the influences of various fertilizers on the consists of fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. This study using biochemical reaction technique and measurement nucleic acid consists to identify the species of fluorescent pseudomonads in order to evaluate the influences of both chemical fertilizer and hog dung compost on fluorescent pseudomonads communities in the rhizosphere. The soil without fertilizers was a blank. The results of Biolog GN plates shown that, the major species in chemical fertilizers treatment consist of three kind of fluorescent pseudomonads ; that was , Pseudomonas putida biotype A、Pseudomonas putida biotype B and Pseudomonas fluorescen biotype G. The treatment of hog dung compost and blank ware consist with five species of fluorescent pseudomonads:
Pseudomonas putida biotype A、 Pseudomonas putida biotype B、Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G、Pseudomona fulva and Pseudomona maculicola. Pseudomonas putida biotype A was domanant species in the rhizosphere of hog dung compost treatment. The treatment of blank was also consist with five species of fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas putida biotype A、 Pseudomonas putida biotype B、Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G、Pseudomona fuscovaginae and Pseudomona viridilida, and Pseudomonas fuscovagina was domanant species in the blank treatment.This study was used four kind restriction enzymes as AluΙ、HaeΠΙ、RsaΙ and TaqΙ to analysisthe restriction digeston patterns by amplified DNA coding for 16S rDNA. It shown that the results of RsaΙ similar as the results of Biolog GN plates, only. As described above, the kind of fertilizers could effects on the consistence of fluorescent pseudomonads communities of rhizosphere under the same soil.

目錄
中文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------------PI
目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------------n
表次 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------nP
圖次 --------------------------------------------------------------------------nIP
前言 --------------------------------------------------------------------------1
前人研究 ------------------------------------------------------------------3
一、土壤微生物多樣性與生態---------------------------3
二、 螢光假單胞菌在農業環境中的角色----------------4
三、 影響根圈微生物多樣性之因子
1.不同肥料對根圈微生物多樣性之影------------------5
2.作物生長階段之根圈微生物多樣性------------------6
3.作物種類與品系------------------------------------------6
四、 近代根圈微生物多樣性之研究-----------------------7
實驗設計與目的-----------------------------------------------------------9
一、實驗材料--------------------------------------------------10
二、儀器--------------------------------------------------------12
三、方法--------------------------------------------------------13
1.玉米之栽培----------------------------------------------13
2.施肥處理-------------------------------------------------13
3.計算根圈總細菌數-------------------------------------14
4.分離螢光擬球菌----------------------------------------15
5.螢光擬球菌對碳源利用率之分析-------------------15
6.螢光擬球菌 16S rDNA限制酵素切割片段分析
(一)萃螢光假單胞菌染色體核酸-----------------17
(二)螢光假單胞菌16S rDNA之分離-----------20
(三)16S rDNA 限制酵素切割片段反應(ARDRA)
-----------------------------------------------------21
結果------------------------ -------------------------------------------------24
討論--------------------------------------------------------------------------30
結論--------------------------------------------------------------------------33
參考文獻--------------------------------------------------------------------49

參考文獻
王敏昭。1998。土壤生態變異對土壤溶液有機碳境況之影響。土壤與環境,1:249-268。
林浩潭,賴七仙,李國欽。1994。有機肥料中重金屬含量調查及對作物生長影響 之評估。植物保護學會會刊,36: 201-207。
金恆鑣,王瑞香,夏禹九。1997。生命多樣性與保育政策。p:56-82。
生物科技與法律研究通訊 ,2000,第七期 。 p1-5。
金恆鑣譯。1992。繽紛的生命。譯自Wilson,E.O..The diversity of life,Cambridge.Mass:Harvartd University Press.天下文化出版。
莊作權,曾國力,蔡宜峰,陳鴻基。1998。施用有機複肥對不同土壤及不同作物生長期土壤肥力變化之影響。土壤與環境,1:185-200.
趙維良,田見臻,趙震慶。1997。利用分子技術探討不同種類肥料對土壤微生物群聚組成的影響。中國農業化學會誌 35: 252-262。
楊秋忠。1990。 果園土壤有機質之功能與利用。果樹營養與果園土壤管理研討會專輯。台灣省台中區農業改良場編印,p:65-72。
陳水良。1994。有機農業的肥料與土壤。農藥世界,129: 67-69。
Atlas , R.M., A.Horowitz, M. krichevsky, and A. K. Bej. 1991. Response of microbial population to environmental disturbance. Microbiol Ecol 22:249-256.
Bashan, Y., and G.Olguin. 1998. Proposal of the diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria into two classifications:biocontrol-PGPB (plant-growth promoting bacteria )and PGPB.Soil biol Biochem 30:1225-1228.
Bakken, L. A., 1997, Culturable and nonculturable bacteria in soil . p:47-61, In. D. E. Jan, et al.,(eds) ,Modern soil microbiology. Marcel Dekker., Inc., New York.
Bei, A. K., M. Perlin, and R. M. Atlas. 1992. Effect of introducing genetically engerneered microorganisms on soil microbial community diversity.FEMS Microbiol Ecol 86:169-176.
Brunsbach, F.R., and W. Reineke. 1993. Degradation of chlorobenzoates in soil slurry by special microorganisms.Appl Microbiol Biotech 39:117-122
Cello,F.,A. Bevivino, L. Chiarini, R. Fani, D. Paffetti, S.Tabachioni, and C. Dalmastri. 1997. Biodiversity of a Burkholderia cepacia population isolated from maize rhizophere at different plant growth stages.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4485-4493.
Chiarini ,L., A.Bevivino, and S.Tabacchioni, 1994. Factors affecting the competitve ability in rhizosphere colonization of plant-growth promoting strain of Burkholderia cepacia . p: 204-206. In.R. Pinton, et al.,(eds) , Plant-growth Promoting Rhizobacteira. Marcel Dekker., Inc., New York.
Dalmastri, C., L.Chiarini, C.Cantale,A.Bevivino, and S.T. tabacchioni. 1999. Soil type and maize affect the genetic diversity of maize root-associated Burkholderia cepoacia populations.Appl. Environ. Microbio. 63:4485-4493.
Defago, G.,B. K. Duffy, and C. Keel. 1994. Risk assessment for the release of plant growth —promoting rhizobacteria, p.254. In . Z.Varanini, et al.(eds),Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria. Csiro Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Drahos, D., 1991, Field testing of genetically engineered microorganisms. Biotech. Adv. 9:157-171.
Elmerich, C., E.W.Zimmer, and C.Vielle. 1992. Associative nitrogen fixing bacteria.In:G.Stacey, et al. (eds), Biological Nitrogen fixation.Chapman and Hall. New York pp:212-25
Felsenstein , J. 1989. PHYLIP-phylogeny influence package. Cladistics 5: 164-166.
Frey, N. K., J. K. Fredrickson, S. Fishbain, M. Wagner, and D. A. Stahl. 1997. Population structure of microbial communities associated with two deep, anaerobic, alkaline aquifers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1498-1504.
Golovleva, L. A., and G. K. Skryabin. 1981. Microbiol degradation of DDT, p.287-291, In T. Leisinger, et al.(eds), Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics and Recalcitrant Compounds. Academic Press, Inc., London.
Hallmann, J., A. Quadt Hallmann, W. F. Mahaffee, and J.W. Kloepper. 1997. Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops.Can J Microbiol 43:895-914.
Holloway, B. W. 1992. Pseudomonas in the Late Twentieth Century. Pseudomonas : molecular, biology and biotechnology. Galli, Silver, Witholt, Karns, J. S., J. J., Kilbane, S. Duttagupa, and A. M. Chakrabarty, 1983. Metabolism of halophenols by 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Pseudomonas cepica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:1476-1181.
Kloepper, J.W., R.M.Zablotowicz, E.M.Tippimg, and R.Lofshitz. 1991. Plant growth promotion mediated by bacterial rhizosphere colonizers. p:315-326, In. D.L. Keister and P.B. Cregan(eds) ,The Rhizosphere and Plant Growth. Kluwer Acad. Pub. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Kennedy, A.D. and K. L. Smith. 1995. Soil microbial diversity and the sustainability of agriculture soil. Plant and Soil 170:75-86.
Laguerre, C, L. Rigottier-Gois and P. Lemanceau, 1994, Fluorescent Pseudomonas species categorized by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ restriction fragment analysis of 16S rDNA. Molecular Ecology 3:479-487.
Laurie , A., Achenbach and J. D. Coates,2000, Disparity between bacterial phylogeny and physiology. ASM News 66:714-715.
Latour, X., T. Corberand,G. Laguerre, F. Allard and P. Lemanceau, 1996, The composition of fluorescent pseudomonad populations associated with roots is influenced by plant and soil type. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.62:2449-2456.
Lemanceau , P., T.Corberand, L.Gardan, G. Laguerre, X.Latour, J. M. Boeufgras, and C. Alabouvette .1995. Effect of two species,flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill) ,on the diversity of soil population fluorescent pseudomonads.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1004-1012.
Lynch , J.M., and E.Bragg,1985,Microorganism and soil aggregte stability.Adv Soil Sci 2:133-171.
Mahaffee, W. F., and J. W. Kloepper. 1997. Temporal changes in the bacterial communities of soil, rhizosphere, and endorhiza asscioated with field-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Appl. Environ. Microbiol.34:210-223.
Matson, P.A, W. J. Parton, A.G. Power and M. J.Swift.1997.Agricultureal intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277: 504-509.
Reynolds, J. B. S. Weir, and C.C. Cockheram. 1983. Estimation for the coancestry coefficient:basis for a short term denetic distance.Denetics 105:767-779.
Sambrook , J., E. F. Fritsch and T. Maniatis, 1989, Analysis and cloning of Eukaryotic genomic DNA. p:16-20. In. J. Sambrook , et al. (eds), Molecular cloning.Spring Harbor Pub. USA.
Smalla, K., U. Wachtendorf, H.Heuer, W.T. Liu and L.Forney. 1998. Analysis of BIOLOG GN substrate utility pattern by microbial communities.Appl. Environ. Microbio. 64:1220-1225.
Timonin, M. I. 1940. The interaction of hier plants and soil microorganisms. I. Microbiol population of rhizosphere of seelding of certain cultivated plants.Can. J. Res. 18:307-317.
van Veen, J.A.,L.S.van Overbeek, and J. D.van Elsas. 1997. Fate and activity of microorganisms introduced into soil.Microb. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61:121-135.
Walton, B.T., and T.A.Anderson. 1995. Microbial Degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizosphere:potential application to biological remediation of waste sites.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1012-1016.
Wackett, L. and D. T. Gibson. 1988. Degradation of trichloroethylene by toluene dioxygenase in whole-cell studies with Pseudomonas putida F1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1703-1708.
Weller, D.M. 1988. Biological control of soilborne plant-pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria.Annu Rev Phynopathol 26:319- 407,

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔