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研究生:何怡增
研究生(外文):Yi-Tzeng Her
論文名稱:噴植基材對植物發芽生長之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Hydroseeding Material on the Influence of Seed Germination
指導教授:林信輝林信輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shin-Hwei Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:噴植基材噴植工法植生調查植物生理
外文關鍵詞:hydroseeding materialhydroseeding engineeringvegetation investigationplant physiology
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:19
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噴植工法之引進與應用迄今有近三十年,噴植機具不斷改良,應用材料更具多樣性,在多數人為開挖坡面或自然裸露之崩塌地施行,應用噴植方法之整體經濟效益及坡面穩定效益頗佳,且噴植施工迅速安全亦能克服各種崩塌坡面環境應力,將是未來植生復育應用工法的趨勢。本研究選取連續纖維團粒噴植工法(TSF噴植工法)應用之噴植基材,配合相思樹、胡枝子、百慕達草等三種植物種子進行材料特性分析及不同噴植設計厚度下種子之發芽試驗,並選取苗栗縣明德水庫南側崩塌地及高雄縣田寮泥岩地區作為試驗區,此二處均為植生復育困難度頗高之地點,於兩處施工地點進行植生調查及植物生理反應測定,提供此工法爾後在施工設計及種子材料應用之參考。茲將結果摘要如下:
1.由噴植基材之特性分析結果,得知客土材料與噴植基材之養分含量比率頗高。團粒劑在基材中除充當噴植黏著劑外,對於土壤之團粒化具有明顯之效果,由基材土壤三相之試驗結果,團粒劑之使用量其重量百分率濃度控制在0.3%以內為宜。
2.噴植基材具有良好之水分保持能力,基材含愈高之團粒劑濃度具有較高之田間容水量。由基材之保水能力訂定養護週期,但實際應用時仍須針對不同植物種子發芽生長所需之土壤水分加以修正。
3.相思樹、胡枝子、百慕達草之發芽情形受到設計厚度之影響。團粒劑使用量增加造成基材黏滯度提高,對於相思樹及百慕達草發芽影響較小,胡枝子則不適合應用於高黏滯度之噴植基材中。同時使用此三種植物時,以將基材團粒劑濃度控制於0.2%為最適宜。
4.在相同之溫、濕渡環境下,植物之淨光合成率、氣孔導度、Ci/Ca值、葉內外蒸汽壓差、蒸散率、用水效率等生理因子,在不同光度及CO2條件下具有明顯之差異,相思樹與胡枝子之光補償點在0-100μmolm-2s-1之間,CO2補償點分別在30-50ppm及50-70ppm之間,光飽和點隨CO2濃度之供應而改變,分別在800-1200μmolm-2s-1及400-800μmolm-2s-1之間,在光飽和點之後除淨光合成率及用水效率呈下降趨勢外,其他因子皆維持較穩定之情況。
5.由植物生理試驗得知,旱季時相思樹之用水效率約為0.4%,能適應乾旱之氣候,為旱季時之優勢樹種。胡枝子在旱季時之用水效率約為0.22%,於旱季時落葉以減少水分之消耗量,推測胡枝子應屬於乾旱躲避型之植物 。
6.採行鋪網噴植之方式,鐵絲網在鏽蝕之後滲入土壤,造成土壤中鐵、鋅含量大量增加,對於部分植物可能造成在生長上之負面影響,因此在施工安全性及坡面穩定無虞之前提下,是否改變鋪網之密度或可於立地條件較佳之緩坡省略鋪網之施工,在技術上仍須進一步探討。
Spray planting engineering method had been applied for more than thirty years.The spray planting apparatus has been continuously ameliorated and the applied materials are more diversified. This method is mostly applied on cutting slope and nature sliding area. We found that spray planting method has highly economic benefit and can stabilize slope environment. In this study, ‘Tension Soil Flock’(TSF) spray planting method and the Acacia confusa、Lespedeza bicolor and Cynodon dactylon’s seeds was chosen as tested specimen. The germination rate of these species in different mulching thickness of the spray planting mixture will be determined. Two construction sites were chosen as study areas those had been vegetated using the ‘TSF’ spray planting method. The construction sites included a landslide slope and a mudstone slope where are in Ming-De Reservoir and Tian-Liao. Both sites were convinced those are difficult to recovery by using vegetation engineering method. In this study, the vegetative characteristics and the plant physiological were investigated. In the meanwhile, the physical and chemical characteristic of planting mixture were analyzed, which will provide the suggestion of the improvement and manufacture of spray planting mixture of this method. The results are summarized as the following:
1.According to the physical and chemical analysis data of the spray planting mixture, the percentage of available nutrient were apparently higher in the mixture and in the ‘Jet Soil’ material than in the Gravel Red soil or the mudstone soil. The ’Polyesters’ were treated as adhesive agent, it also has the ability to aggregate soil. As the result of the three-phase experiment of the mixture, it is the best policy to control concentration of the Polyesters within 0.3%.
2.The mixture has highly water holding capacity, and the field moisture arise while the consistency of the Polyesters increase. After knowing the retention ability of the mixture, the maintenance schedule could be made. Different plant species need varied soil moisture during the germination stage, so the maintenance schedule should be modified depend on plant species.
3.The germination rate of Acacia confusa、Lespedeza bicolor and Cynodon dactylon was inhibited both by mulching thickness and stickiness of the aggregate agents. Although the negative influence on the germination of Acacia confusa and Cynodon dactylon was not serious, Lespedeza bicolor’s seed cannot germinate well in mixture with heavy stickiness. Whenever to apply these species in the same time, the concentration of the mixture could be set at about 0.2%.
4.The physiological responses, including net photosynthesis, leaf conductance, Ci/Ca, vapor pressure differential(VPD), transportation and water use efficiency(WUE) were affected by light intensity and ambient CO2 concentration of the same temperature and humidity circumstance. The physiological factors were apparently varied with the light intensity and CO2 concentration. The compensation intensity of light of Acacia confusa’s and Lespedeza bicolor’s were between 0-100μmolm-2s-1 and the compensation concentration of CO2 were between 30-50ppm and 50-70ppm respectively. The saturation intensity of light of Acacia confusa’s and Lespedeza bicolor’s were between 800-1200μmolm-2s-1 and 400-800μmolm-2s-1 respectively. The physiological responses remained in steady except the photosynthesis and water use efficiency descend while the light intensity were higher than the saturation point.
5.The water use efficiencies (WUE) of Acacia confusa’s and Lespedeza bicolor’s WUE were 0.4% and 0.22% respectively. Because Acacia confusa has higher WUE than other species, it became the main species during the drought season. The leaves of Lespedeza bicolor will fall off in order to reduce water consuming during the drought season. We suppose that Acacia confusa is a xerophilous plant and Lespedeza bicolor is a xerophobous plant.
6.After spray planting on slope treated with netting about year later, the soil samples had been taken and analyzed. The amount of Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the soil increased tremendously. The phenomena indicated that the plants growing at the construction sites may injured by the toxicity of absorbing excessive Fe2+ and Zn2+ . It is worth for further study to considerate about either change the density of the net or leave out netting.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
圖次…………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
表次…………………………………………………………….…….Ⅶ
附表次………………………………………………………………..Ⅸ
壹、前言……………………………………………………1
貳、前人研究………………………………………………3
一、噴植方法之發展……………………………3
二、影響植物生長之主要因素探討…………..5
三、環境應力對植物生理反應影響…………..7
參、試驗材料、項目及方法…………………………….12
一、試驗區地點及施工說明……………………12
二、供試植物材料………………………………17
三、試驗項目與流程……………………………19
(一)材料特性分析
(二)不同設計厚度種子之發芽試驗
(三)植生調查與土壤分析
(四)植物生理試驗
肆、結果與討論……………………………………………28
一、材料特性分析………………………………28
二、不同噴植設計對植物發芽率之影響………36
三、植物發芽率與噴植坡面預期植物成立數量探討…43
四、試驗區植生調查與土壤分析………………50
五、控制環境下植物生理反應之探討…………56
伍、結論與建議……………………………………………74
參考文獻…………………………………………………77
附 錄……………………………………………………84
一、試驗區植生調查……………………………84
二、田寮試驗區內各樣區間植物之群團分析…89
三、田寮試驗區之土壤調查分析………………92
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