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研究生(外文):Wei-yueh Tsai
論文名稱(外文):On Sexual Identity in James Baldwin's Giovanni's Room: Its Formation, Negotiation, and Conflict
指導教授(外文):Chung-yi Chu
外文關鍵詞:Sexual IdentityFormationNegotiationConflict
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《吉歐凡尼的房間》是詹姆斯·包德溫的第二本小說,於1956年出版◦ 它描寫一位美國青年如何處理性慾傾向的問題,而這本小說被認為是一個異例,因為包德溫採用了全數白人的角色來敘述情節◦ 此舉也招致許多文評家的批評◦ 但我想說的是,這本作品其實突破了黑人作家所能描寫題材的限制,是一本無法忽略的小說◦
在第一章裡,佛洛依德的伊的帕斯情結首被提及,他所鋪陳的異性戀認同是與他所主張的認同理論相違背的,因此所謂正常的異性戀性向是值得商確的,同時他的性發展理論也認為異性戀是需要解釋的◦ 另一方面,宗親系統及異族聯婚也加強了異性戀不可動搖的地位◦ 然而,需要闡明的是,此社會機制卻隱藏了不被認同及承認的同性社交慾望(homosocial desire) ◦ 在第二章裡探討二元對立異/同性戀的關係,指出此對立只是用來讚揚前者,貶損後者◦ 小說中人物大衛就是依從此認知來處理他的同性慾望,為了證明自己不屬於同志族群,他以鄙視及厭惡(abjection)的態度來面對自己及別人的同性戀◦ 不過他擺盪於異/同兩個領域之間的結果,只證明了界線已被他跨越及崩解,同性戀對他而言從來就不是他者(other) ◦
第三章檢視大衛並無法隱瞞同性戀的秘密◦ 早期埋藏於心中與喬依的一段情史,如今回想起來令他感覺驚悚及害怕◦ 以佛洛依德的理論解釋,經過壓抑的東西如果再次浮現,是會造成如此恐懼的效果◦ 他並以欺瞞(passing)的策略帶上異性戀的面具,然而他的父親懷疑他藏有內情,讀者不難猜測其實秘密的內容早已被知曉◦ 到最後他對吉歐凡尼的愛已無法否認,對吉歐凡尼產生認同,心中盤據著他的影像,都說明了他愛的是吉歐凡尼,而不是女友海拉◦ 結語肯定包德溫用心處理如此受爭議的題材,他的成就無法被磨滅◦

Giovanni’s Room is James Baldwin’s second novel published in 1956. It portrays a young American gradually coming to terms with his sexuality, and it is an exceptional one among Baldwin’s works, mainly because he uses all-white characters to depict homosexuality. And this fact often leads some critics to attack his method in presenting a tabooed subject. But as I will argue, this novel is an important one in Baldwin’s canon, because he has broke through the confines of a black writer in literary representations.
Chapter One examines how Freud’s psychoanalytic account of the formation of heterosexual orientation is problematic and how Freud’s own theories of sexuality actually argue against the unquestionable heterosexuality, while at the same time I show that kinship structures and exogamic marriage secure the legitimacy of heterosexuality but only reveals the homoerotic bond between men. Chapter Two inquires into how the established binary opposition between heterosexuality and homosexuality is worked out to celebrate the former and to denigrate and regulate the latter. This opposition also sets out to define heterosexuality as a norm and homosexuality as a deviation by, as David does, banishing the latter to the domain of the outside and labeling it as the abject. However, this act proves to be a failure because the boundary demarcating the two is already transgressed by David and susceptible to collapse. Unable to resolve his dilemma, he repeatedly imitates the straight to hide his homosexuality. But as will be shown, homosexuality for him is not so other at all.
Chapter Three scrutinizes the ultimate failure for David to cover up his homosexuality as a secret. The returning image of Joey reveals that he never forgets that boy. The uncanny effect of this image shows that it has been repressed, and by adopting the strategy of passing, he intends to live as a heterosexual and exclude his homosexuality. Also he wants to keep the latter as a secret, but we readers suspect that his father has known it all along. In the end, David finally confesses his love for Giovanni, experiencing some hallucinations and identifying himself with Giovanni. This manifests that the loss of Giovanni has made him aware of his immense desire for his lover. And thus to free himself from self-constructed prison, he needs to affirm and acknowledge his homosexuality that has been denied and precluded. The concluding part of my analysis argues that the novel is a well-written one. With the publication of this book, Baldwin has stepped out of the confines of a Negro writer and his importance in the American literature has been well founded and is undoubted.

Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------ii
English Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------iv
Chapter I Heterosexuality: Its Psychical Formation
and Social Practices------------------------------------------18
Chapter II The Collapse of the Binary
Chapter III Outing David---------------------------------------------------66
Conclusion -----------------------------------------------------------------------85
Works Cited --------------------------------------------------------------------101

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