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研究生:林文隆
研究生(外文):wen-lung Lin
論文名稱:大坑與蓮華池地區褐鷹鴞昆蟲類食殘和食繭內容物分析及取食行為之探討
論文名稱(外文):Insect residual, pellet analysis and hunting behavior of the Brown Hawk Owl in Da-ken and Lien-hwa-chi areas
指導教授:葉金彰葉金彰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Chang Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:褐鷹鴞食繭生物量獵食行為食餌區為廣度均勻度食餌區為重疊性
外文關鍵詞:Brown Hawk Owlpelletbiomasshunting behaviorFNBevennessFNO
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大坑與蓮華池地區褐鷹鴞捕食的大型昆蟲中,主要集中在鱗翅目、鞘翅目、同翅目、直翅目等四類,出現數量比例分別佔全部昆蟲類食餌的90%和92%。其中以鱗翅目和鞘翅目這兩類昆蟲在每個季節被捕食的比例較為穩定,而同翅目與直翅目昆蟲被捕食的數量呈現季節性消長。各科昆蟲中,以金龜子科(16.5%和25.2%)被捕食比例最高。其餘依序為天蛾科(11.3%和13.7%)、蟬科(11.3%和12%)、夜蛾科(8.4%和11.4%)。合計這四科昆蟲出現的數量分別佔全部昆蟲食餌的50%及59.8%。大型昆蟲中,提供較多的生物量仍是鱗翅目、鞘翅目、同翅目、直翅目這四類昆蟲,分別佔全部昆蟲類食餌生物量的95%及95.3%。其中以金龜子科(13.5%和23.3%)所佔比例最高,其餘依序為蟬科(17%和17.7%)、蝗科(12.5%和19.2%)、天蛾科(8.9%和10.3%)。合計這四科昆蟲所提供的生物量分別佔全部的60.7%及61.7%。各類昆蟲被利用率以鱗翅目、同翅目、蜻蛉目、竹節蟲目、廣翅目、脈翅目最高,平均被利用率都高於96%。而螳螂目、蜚蠊目、直翅目分別為89.5%、85.6%和82.3%。鞘翅目最低,只有69.2%。個體生物量以蝗科(2.27g)、鍬形蟲科(1.86g)、天蠶蛾科(1.29g)最大,其他39科的個體生物量在0.03g和1g之間。食繭的內容物以小型鳥類頻度較高,約佔35.0%到47.2%之間。小型哺乳類次之,分別佔25.0%和33.4%。行為頻度方面,大坑地區的褐鷹鴞飛啄(hawking)頻度在春季最高,每小時平均24.6次;飛擊(fly-catching)則在秋季最高,平均每小時15.7次。蓮華池地區褐鷹鴞的飛啄頻度在冬季最高,平均每小時26.9次;飛擊的頻度則在秋季最高,平均每小時21.8次。大坑地區的褐鷹鴞全年度科級食餌區位廣度(FNBfamily)與均勻度(evenness)分別為11.64與0.74,蓮華池地區褐鷹鴞為8.9與0.55。結果顯示大坑地區褐鷹鴞的食餌區位廣度與均勻度都比蓮華池地區的褐鷹鴞高,而兩地區褐鷹鴞全年度的科級食餌區位重疊性(FNOfamily)為93.9%。
The present study investigated different insects hunted by the Brown Hawk Owl (Ninox scutulata) in Da-ken, Taichung and Lien-hwa-chi, Puli areas in terms of numbers of presence, biomass, utilized rates, and individual biomass of these insects. Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Orthoptera represented the largest numbers of presence of insects that the Brown Hawk Owl hunted in these two areas, making up of 90% and 92% of total numbers respectively. During each seasons, the preyed rates of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera remained constantly, but those of Homoptera and Orthoptera varied with seasons. Among different families of insects, the preyed rate of Scarabaeidae (16.5% and 25.2%) was the highest, followed by those of Sphingidae (11.3% and13.7%) , Cicadidae (11.3% and 12.0%) and Noctuidae (8.4% and 11.4%). The numbers of these four families constituted 50% and 59.8% of total number of insect food niche in these two areas respectively.
The same four orders, namely, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Orthoptera, were also found to represent the largest food niche biomass, standing for 95% and 95.3% of total biomass in Da-ken and Lien-hwa-chi areas respectively. Among different families of insects, Scarabaeidae comprised the highest percentage of food niche biomass (13.5% and 23.3% ) respectively, followed by Cicadidae (17.0% and 17.7%) and Acridiidae (12.5% and 19.2%) and Sphingidae (8.9% and 10.3%). The biomass produced by these four families represented 60.7% and 61.7% of the total in the areas. As for utilized rates, Lepidoptera, Homoptera, Odonata, Phasmida, Megaloptera, Neuroptera were the highest, the average rates being above 96%.The utilized rates of Mantodea, Blattaria, Orthoptera were 89.5%, 85.6% and 82.3% respectively. That of Coleoptera was the lowest, only 69.2%. Acridiidae, Lucanidae and Saturniidae produced the largest individual biomass, and the rest of 39 families generated individual biomass ranging from 0.03g to 1g.
The analysis of pellets content of the Brown Hawk Owl in Da-ken and Lien-hwa-chi areas showed that small birds constituted the largest proportion among all, about 35.0% and 47.2% respectively, and small mammals came the next, 25.0% and 33.4%. With respect to the behavioral frequency of the Brown Hawk Owl, the hawking occurred most frequently in spring at Da-ken (24.6 occurrences per hour) but in the winter at Lien-hwa-chi, and fly-catching in the fall at both areas (15.7 occurrences per hour at Da-ken and 21.8 occurrences per hour at Lien-hwa-chi). Furthermore, the FNB family and evenness of the Brown Hawk Owl at Da-ken were 11.64 and 0.74 respectively, those at Lien-hwa-chi 8.9 and 0.55 respectively. Finally, the FNO family of the Brown Hawk Owl was 93.9% at both areas.
壹、中文摘要…………………………………………………………1
貳、前言………………………………………………………………3
參、前人研究…………………………………………………………5
肆、材料與方法………………………………………………………12
伍、樣區介紹…………………………………………………………17
陸、結果………………………………………………………………19
柒、討論………………………………………………………………34
捌、參考文獻…………………………………………………………53
玖、英文摘要…………………………………………………………60
拾、 表………………………………………………………………62
拾壹、 圖………………………………………………………………83
拾貳、 附錄……………………………………………………………108
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