跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.117.197) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/27 04:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王文哲
研究生(外文):Wen-Jer Wang
論文名稱:食物引誘劑及南瓜萃取物對瓜實蠅之引誘
論文名稱(外文):Attraction of Food Attractants and Extracts of Pumpkin to Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)
指導教授:劉玉章劉玉章引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:食物引誘劑南瓜萃取物瓜實蠅
外文關鍵詞:Food AttractantsExtracts of PumpkinMelon Fly
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:408
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在食物引誘劑試驗中,選取黃豆蛋白、乙酸乙酯、正乙酸丁酯、乙烯、糖蜜5種物質及水等,混配成16種混合引誘物,於小網室(長206×寬95×高152 cm)內進行對瓜實蠅(Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett))成蟲引誘效果之測試,結果以黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯(BS+ EA)對成蟲的引誘率最高,達75.8%。黃豆蛋白添加不同比例之乙酸乙酯,亦以1:1比例下的引誘效果最佳,其引誘率隨乙酸乙酯濃度之增加而降低。在相同空間下,引誘劑對不同密度成蟲之誘殺效果,以40對密度下的引誘效果最佳。在引誘劑中分別添加不同種類殺蟲劑,結果以添加2.8%畢芬寧乳劑的誘殺效果最佳,誘殺率為39.2%。引誘劑之有效引誘期以第一天之引誘效果為最強,但其高效引誘時間僅能維持2天。在自然植物萃取物試驗中,南瓜花、葉及花柄之乙醚萃取物,已証實可引誘瓜實蠅雌蟲產卵,其中以南瓜花萃取物最具產卵引誘力,其平均產卵量,以吸水海棉為載體引誘時,每日每雌蟲可受誘產37.7粒卵,以小黃瓜為載體時,每日可引誘雌蟲產21.6粒卵。在選擇有萃取物及無萃取物之選擇試驗中,雌蟲只選擇有南瓜花萃取物的產卵頻率為83.3%。利用三種不同溶劑進行萃取時,以乙醚萃取之南瓜花萃取物之產卵引誘效果最佳,平均產卵量為每日每雌蟲可產21.6粒卵,而乙醇及丙酮萃取物分別僅產11.6及12.4粒卵。南瓜花萃取物以不同稀釋倍數稀釋後,對成蟲之引誘力,隨稀釋濃度的增加,引誘效果越佳,以稀釋1倍時對成蟲之引誘效果最佳,其總誘蟲率達60.0%,但其有效引誘率僅能維持三天在40.8%以上,隨使用時間的延長,引誘率逐漸下降。於花萃取物中加添乙酸乙酯、正乙酸丁酯以及乙酸乙酯加黃豆蛋白等添加物後,其引誘效果反明顯降低,仍以稀釋1倍之南瓜花萃取物之引誘效果最好。綜合以上結果,自然植物之南瓜花確具開發為瓜實蠅產卵引誘劑及雌雄蟲引誘劑之潛力。

Sixteen mixtures were used for the food attractant tests which were made by five major substances, the bacto-soytone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate and molasses, mixtures were selected and tested in the screen house (L206× H95× W152cm) in order to find out the most attractive attractant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The result revealed that the most attractive one for both the female and male flies was the mixture of bacto- soytone and ethyl acetate (BS+EA), with a higher attractiveness of 75.8%. The best mix ratio of bacto-soytone and ethyl acetate was 1:1. The attractiveness of this mixture to the adult flies reached the highest when the fly density was 40 pairs in a certain space. When the attractant (BS+EA, 1:1) poisoned with different insecticides, it was showed the most effective one was 2.8% bifenthrin E.C., with 39.2% attractiveness to the flies, however, the effective duration of this attractant persisted only 2 days at the high percentage of attractiveness level. In the extracts of pumpkin tests, the high motivation was provoked by the ether extracts of bloom, leaves and peduncle of pumpkin proved to be attractive to the melon fly. Among them, the extract of pumpkin bloom was showed the most attractive to the oviposition of females, with average 37.7 eggs per female per day were laid on the sponge sucked with extract of pumpkin bloom, and with average 21.6 eggs were laid on the cucumber dipped with this extract. In free choice tests, the females preferred to lay their eggs in the traps with the extracts of pumpkin bloom than the other treatments without the extracts. By using of different solvents of ether, ethyl alcohol and acetone to extract the pumpkin bloom, it is showed that female flies were strongly motivated to the ether extracts for oviposition, which indicated the ether extract of pumpkin bloom was the best and usable plant extract on the attraction of female flies. When this extract diluted with water, it was showed the lower the concentration, the lower the attractiveness, and the highest effectiveness appeared at the concentration diluted by one time, with 60.0% attractiveness. The effective duration of this extract was tested in the screen house, the effectiveness of this extract decreased as the duration elongated, and the higher effective duration over 40.8% attractiveness to the melon flies persisted only 3 days. When the extracts of pumpkin bloom mixed with other substances, ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, and bacto-soytone + ethyl acetate, the attractiveness of these mixtures were showed obviously lower than the extract itself. From the result of pumpkin extract tests, it is considered that the extract of pumpkin bloom can be used and developed as an attractant for luring the melon flies of both females and males, and the oviposition of females.

摘 要1
英文摘要3
前 言5
往昔研究8
一、果實蠅的食物引誘物質8
二、不同比例混合之引誘劑對果實蠅之影響9
三、引誘劑添加殺蟲劑對果實蠅之影響11
四、食物引誘劑之有效期11
五、天然植物對果實蠅之引誘12
材料與方法16
一、供試蟲之飼育與處理16
二、引誘物質對瓜實蠅之引誘效果16
1.不同引誘物質對瓜實蠅引誘效果之網室篩選16
2.不同混合比例之黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯混合物對成蟲之引誘效果17
3.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯引誘劑對不同密度成蟲之引誘18
4.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯添加不同殺蟲劑對成蟲之誘殺效果19
5.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯引誘劑之有效引誘期測定19
三、南瓜萃取物引誘劑之開發20
1. 不同南瓜植株部位萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘20
2. 不同溶劑南瓜花萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘效果21
3. 不同稀釋倍數之南瓜花萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘22
4. 不同稀釋倍數之南瓜花萃取物對成蟲之引誘效果23
5. 南瓜花萃取物對成蟲之有效引誘期23
6. 南瓜花萃取物之混合物對成蟲之引誘效果24
結 果25
一、引誘物質對瓜實蠅之引誘效果25
1.不同引誘物質對瓜實蠅引誘效果之網室篩選25
2.不同混合比例之黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯混合物對成蟲之引誘效果26
3.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯引誘劑對不同密度成蟲之引誘26
4.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯添加不同殺蟲劑對成蟲之誘殺效果27
5.黃豆蛋白加乙酸乙酯引誘劑之有效引誘期28
二、南瓜萃取物引誘劑之開發29
1.不同南瓜植株部位萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘29
2.不同溶劑南瓜花萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘效果32
3.不同稀釋倍數之南瓜花萃取物對雌蟲之產卵引誘34
4.不同稀釋倍數之南瓜花萃取物對成蟲之引誘效果35
5.南瓜花萃取物對成蟲之有效引誘期35
6.南瓜花萃取物之混合物對成蟲之引誘效果36
討 論37
一、引誘物質對瓜實蠅之引誘效果37
二、南瓜萃取物引誘劑之開發42
參考文獻47
表53
圖73
附 錄79

方敏男、章加寶。1984。臺灣中部地區瓜實蠅發生消長與為害調查。植保會刊 26:241∼248。
方敏男、劉添丁。1998。不同誘引物質對瓜實蠅之誘殺效果觀察。「台灣果實蠅防治研討會」專刊。192∼206頁。
王炘、黃讚、陳貴華。1960。全省瓜實蠅防治示範。鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所專報第七號。35頁。
朱耀沂、葉萬音。1987。甲基丁香油對本省產瓜實蠅之引誘性。植保會刊 29:81∼84。
李錫山。1972。瓜實蠅之生態研究。植保會刊 14:175∼182。
李文容。1978。東方果實蠅的生態與防治。中央研究院所專刊第三號 昆蟲生態與防治研討專刊。19∼26頁。
呂鳳鳴。1997。瓜實蠅(雙翅目:果實蠅科)產卵之偏好性(I )寄主果實與顏色 中華昆蟲 17:237∼243。
邱煇宗。1990。苯甲酸乙酯(ethyl benzoate):東方果實蠅產卵誘引之貢獻成份 中華昆蟲 10:375∼387。
馬君采。1972。果蠅類生態舉隅。科學農業季刊 20:457∼462。
黃振聲、顏耀平。1998。瓜果實蠅性費洛蒙與誘引劑及溫度對克蠅與甲基丁香油誘引力影響之研究。「台灣果實蠅防治研討會」專刊。 149∼172頁。
陳健忠、董耀仁。2000。五種植物葉片萃取物對東方果實蠅 Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (雙翅目:果實蠅科)之誘引效果。中華昆蟲 20: 37∼44。
陶家駒。1959。果實蠅誘餌之理論及其應用。植保會刊 1:93∼101。
陶家驊。1952。果實蠅生態考查及其防治試驗。中華農業研究 3:17∼37。
張萃。1994。天然植物對東方果實蠅之引誘。國立中興大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。81頁。
劉玉章。1981。東方果實蠅之研究。興大昆蟲學報 16:9∼26。
劉玉章。1990。瓜實蠅引誘劑之利用。重要蔬菜害蟲綜告防治研討會論文集。中華昆蟲特刊第四號。115∼129頁。
劉玉章、林志祥。1992。10%克蠅混合液對瓜實之誘殺研究。植保會刊 34:307∼315。
劉玉章、章加寶。1980。瓜蠅之實驗生態學。興大昆蟲學報 15:243∼270。
劉玉章、陳文華。1992。東方果實蠅蛋白質類引誘劑之改良。植保會刊 34:316∼325。
劉玉章、陳昇寬。1995。瓜實蠅食物引誘劑之開發。植保會刊 37:189∼199。
劉玉章、黃任豪。2000a。果實成分對東方果實蠅引誘效果之初探。植保會刊 42:147∼158。
劉玉章、黃任豪。2000b。改良糖蜜引誘劑對東方果實蠅之引誘效果。植保會刊 42:223∼233。
劉玉章、黃莉欣。1990。東方果實蠅之產卵偏好。中華昆蟲 10:159∼168。
劉玉章、張佳燕。1995a。瓜實蠅食物引誘劑之篩選及黃色黏紙之附加效用。中華昆蟲 15:35∼46。
劉玉章、張佳燕。1995b。食物引誘劑對瓜實蠅之引誘力。中華昆蟲 15:69∼80。
劉玉章、蕭添印。1984。瓜實蠅之大量飼育 Ι.幼蟲飼育技術。興大昆蟲學報 17:1∼13。
劉添丁、方敏男、楊麗珠。1997。瓜實蠅食物誘引劑之誘引效果篩選試驗。台中區農業改良場研究彙報 56:35∼40。
謝佩慧。1996。果實揮發性成分對東方果實蠅之引誘效果。國立中興大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。94頁。
Arakaki, N., H. Kuba, and H. Soemori. 1984. Mating behavior of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 19: 42∼51.
Back, E. A., and C. E. Pemberton. 1917. The melon fly in Hawaii. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 491. Cited by Nishida et al., 1957.
Bateman, M. A. 1972. The ecology of fruit flies. Ann. Rev. Entomol.17: 493∼518.
Boller, E. J., and R. J. Prokopy. 1976. Bionomics and management of Rhagoletis. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 21: 223∼246.
Cangussu, J. A., and F. S. Zucoloto. 1992. Nutritional value and selection of different diets by adult flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Insect Physiol. 38: 485∼491.
Carle, S. A., A. L. Averill, G. S. Rule, W. H. Reissig, and W. L, Roelofs. 1987. Variation in host fruit volatiles attractive to apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella. J. Chem. Ecol. 13: 759∼805.
Drew, R. A. I. 1987. Behavioural strategies of fruit flies of the genus Dacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) significant in mating and host-plant relationships. Bull. Entomol. Res. 77: 73∼81.
Fletcher, B. A. 1987. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 32: 115∼144.
Gow, P. L. 1954. Proteinaceous bait for the oriental fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 153∼160.
Hagen, K. S., and G. L. Finney. 1950. A food supplement for effectively increasing the fecundity of certain tephritid species. J. Econ. Entomol. 43: 735.
Harris, E. J., D. L. Chambers, L. F. Steiner, D. C. Kamakahi, and M. Komura. 1971. Mortality of tephritids attracted to guava foli-age treated with either malathion or naled plus protein-hydrolysate bait. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 1213∼1216.
Hendrichs, J., C. R. Lauzon, S. S. Cooley, and R. J. Prokopy. 1993. Contribution of natural food sources to adult longevity and fecundity of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 86: 250∼264.
Jang, E. B., D. M. Light, R. G. Binder, R. A. Fath, and L. A. Carvalho. 1994. Attraction of female Mediterranean fruit flies to the five major components of male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. J. Chem. Ecol. 20: 9∼20.
Keiser, I., R. M. Kobayashi, D. H. Miyashita, M. Jacobson, E. J. Harris, and D. L. Chambers. 1973. Trans-6-nonen-1-ol acetate: An ovipositional attractant and stimulant of the melon fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 1355∼1356.
Landolt, P. J., H. C. Reed, and R. R. Heath.1992. Attraction of female papaya fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) male pheromone and host fruit. Environ. Entomol. 21: 1154∼1159.
Marsh, H. O. 1910. Report of the assistant entomologist. In Rept. Board of Commissioners of Agric. and Forestry, Hawaii: pp.152∼159. Cited by Nishida et al., 1957.
Nishida, T., H. A. Bess, and A. Ota. 1957. Comparative effectiveness of malathion and malathion-yest hydrolysate bait sprays for control of the melon fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 50: 680∼684.
Prokopy, R. J., and J. Koyama. 1982. Oviposition site partitioning in Dacus cucurbitae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 31: 428∼432.
Reissig, W. H., B. L. Fein, and W. L. Roelofs. 1982. Field tests of synthetic apple volatiles as apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) attractants. Environ. Entomol. 11: 1294∼1298.
Robacker, D. C. 1991. Specific hunger in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae ) effects on attractiveness of proteinaceous and fruit-derived lures. Environ. Entomol. 20: 1680∼1686.
Robacker , D. C., J. A. Garcia, and W. G. Hart. 1990a. Attraction of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the odor of fermented chapote fruit and to pheromones in laboratory experiments. Environ. Entomol. 19: 403∼408.
Robacker, D. C., A. M. T. Moreno, J. A. Garcia, and R. A. Flath. 1990b. A novel attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, from fermented host fruit. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 2799∼2815.
Severin, H. P., H. C. Severin, and W. H. Hartung. 1914.The ravages, life history, weights of stages, natural enemies, and methods of control of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, Coq. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 7: 177∼207.
Sharp, J. L., and D. L. Chambers.1983. Aggregation response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to proteins and amino acids. Environ. Entomol. 12: 923∼ 928.
Steiner, L. F. 1952. Fruit fly control in Hawaii with poison-bait sprays containing protein hydrolysates. J. Econ. Entomol 45: 838∼843.
Swift, F. C. 1982. Field tests of visual and chemical lures for apple maggot flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 201∼206.
Thorpe, K. W., R. L. Ridgway, and B. A. Leonhardt. 1993. Relationship between gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pheromone trap catch and population density comparison of traps baited with 1 and 500μg (+)-disparlure lures. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 86∼92.
Visser, J. H. 1986. Host odor perception in phytophagous insects. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 31: 121∼144.
Wakabayashi, N., and R.T. Cunningham. 1991. Four-component synthetic food bait for attracting both sexes of the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1672∼1676.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top