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研究生:卓國隆
研究生(外文):Kuo-Long Chuo
論文名稱:溫氏捕植璊(AmblyseiuswomersleyiSchicha)族群對補充食物花粉及二點葉璊(TetranychusurticaeKoch)之數量反應
論文名稱(外文):Numerical response of Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha feeding on supplementary food of pollen and Tetranychus urticae Koch
指導教授:施劍鎣
指導教授(外文):Chain-Ing Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:溫氏捕植璊二點葉璊大量飼育補充食餌冰樹數量反應齡期結構性比
外文關鍵詞:Amblyseius womersleyi SchichaTetranychus urticae Kochmass rearingsupplemental foodice plantnumerical responseage structruesex ratio
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於人工載台上添加豆葉粉,可降低溫氏捕植璊(Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha)的各齡期之逃跑率。溫氏捕植璊單獨取食羅氏鹽膚木、油茶及紫花藿香薊與玉米、南瓜、冇骨消、百合花、火龍果及炮杖等9種花粉時,捕植璊只能發育至前若璊期;取食冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉時可發育為成璊但不產卵。冰樹、含笑花、孤挺花花粉與二點葉璊的混合比例對溫氏捕植蟎族群密度之增殖影響顯著,此三種花粉最大添加量介於10 ~ 30﹪間。溫氏捕植蟎飼以二點葉蟎卵及幼蟎(EL)與冰樹花粉(PL)的混合食物(9EL:1PL)可獲得最高族群密度(893.4蟎 / 載台),次為含笑花花粉(785.2蟎 / 載台)與孤挺花花粉(781.2蟎 / 載台)。捕植蟎各齡期所佔頻度對族群增殖率間之關係,以無母數分析結果顯示冰樹、含笑花與孤挺花花粉對溫氏捕植蟎各齡期所佔頻度與族群增殖率間關係顯著,(c2=8.05,6.98與11.30;c20.05,1 >3.841),故捕植蟎成蟎數佔整個族群比例較高時,族群增殖率會逐漸下降,反之亦然。捕植蟎性比對族群增殖率間之影響亦然,(冰樹、含笑花與孤挺花花粉對溫氏捕植蟎各飼育時間下之性比與族群增殖率經分析c2值分別為3.57、6.38及4.67;c20.1,1 >2.706),當溫氏捕植之性比低於0.5時,族群增殖率逐漸下降,或當溫氏捕植蟎之性比高於0.5時,隨後族群增殖率則逐漸上升。溫氏捕植蟎於人工載台之密度隨飼育期之增長,呈S型方程式增殖,由迴歸公式推測族群需23日達最高密度(776.3蟎 / 載台),其族群最高增殖率為第9 ~ 10日。單位面積出現最高族群量為收穫期評估依據,則最佳之收穫期應為第23日,適宜之收穫期(>750蟎 / 載台)介於23 ~ 31日間。

The study showed that the supplement of bean leaf powder on artificial arena could reduce the escape of Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha. The predator of A. womersleyi were able develop up to protonymph only when they fed on either one of 9 kinds of pollen from nutgall tree, oil camellia, mexicon ageratum, maize, pumpkin, Chinese elder, lily, pitaya and orange trumpet vine. The pollens from ice plant or banana shrub or amaryllis pollen were able to sustain A. womersleyi to develop up to adult but produce no eggs. The different mix ratios of pollens from ice plant, banana shrub, amaryllis and two-spotted spider mites had significant influence on the population densities of A. womersleyi. The maximum supplementary amounts of these three pollens exist between 10 to 30 percentages. Feeding on 7 / 3 to 9 / 1 of prey eggs and larvae / pollen ratio of ice plant, banana shrub and amaryllis of food diet, A. womersleyi was able to produce 893.4 mites / arena, 785.2 mites / arena and 781.2 mites / arena, respectively. Use non-parametric analysis, A. womersleyi showed that mixture of pollen of ice plant, banana shrub, amaryllis and two-spotted spider mites had significant relationship between stage specific frequency and population increase rate (X2 = 8.05、6.98 and 11.30, p > 0.05). Therefore, while adult of A. womersleyi occupied higher population, population increase rate would lower, vice versa. The sex ratio of A. womersleyi had similar effect on population increase rate (X2 = 3.57、6.38 and 4.67, p > 0.1). When the sex ratio of A. womersleyi was lower than 0.05, population increase rate would lower, while the sex ratio of A. womersleyi was higher than 0.05, population increase arose. According to the increase of rearing period, the density of A. womersleyi on the artificial arena increase in a sigmoid increased in a sigmoid function and took 23 days to reach it’s peak(776.3mites / arena). The highest population increase rate fell on day 9 to 10. The ultimate harvest time for predators was at day 23 and the suitable harvest duration was during days 23 to 31.
1. 前言 1
2. 往昔研究 3
2.1. 二點葉蟎的生物特性及重要性 3
2.2. 溫氏捕植蟎的生物特性 4
2.3. 族群之年齡結構 5
2.4. 捕植蟎的大量繁殖 6
2.5. 數量反應 8
2.6. 數量反應之應用 9
3. 材料與方法 10
3.1. 飼育食餌之準備 10
3.1.1. 二點葉蟎之準備 10
3.1.2. 花粉之準備 11
3.2. 飼育載台之準備 11
3.3. 捕植蟎之準備 12
3.4. 添加豆葉粉對溫氏捕植蟎發育期與逃跑率之影響 12
3.5. 花粉對溫氏捕植蟎族群之影響 12
3.6. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎族群密度之影響 13
3.7. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎齡期結構、性比與族群增殖率間之關係 14
3.8. 溫氏捕植蟎族群數量反應之分析方法 15
4. 結果與討論 16
4.1. 添加豆葉粉對溫氏捕植蟎發育期與逃跑率之影響 16
4.2. 花粉對溫氏捕植蟎族群之影響 17
4.3. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎族群密度之影響 18
4.3.1. 冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉不同添加比例下,同種花粉對溫氏捕植蟎族群密度之影響 18
4.3.1.1. 冰樹花粉與二點葉蟎食餌之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎族群密度之影響 18
4.3.1.2. 含笑花花粉與二點葉蟎食餌之混合食物對捕植蟎族群密度之影響………………………………………………………20
4.3.1.3. 孤挺花花粉與二點葉蟎食餌之混合食物對捕植蟎族群密度之影響………………………………………………………21
4.3.2. 冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉不同添加比例下,不同種花粉對捕植蟎族群密度之影響 22
4.3.2.1. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉比例為1EL:1PL 22
4.3.2.2. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉比例為7EL:3PL 23
4.3.2.3. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉比例為9EL:1PL 24
4.4. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎各齡期結構及雌成蟎性比之影響 26
4.4.1. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植蟎齡期結構之影響…………………………………………………………………26
4.4.2. 二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物對溫氏捕植雌成蟎性比之影響…… 27
4.4.2.1. 添加冰樹花粉的二點葉蟎混合食物對捕植蟎之性比影響 ……………………………………………………………..27
4.4.2.2. 添加含笑花粉的二點葉蟎混合食物對捕植蟎之性比影響 ……………………………………………………………..28
4.4.2.3. 添加孤挺花花粉的二點葉蟎混合食物對捕植蟎之性比影響 28
4.5. 溫氏捕植蟎取食不同二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物時族群之數量反應 29
5. 總結 33
6. 參考文獻 35
中文摘要 48
ABSTRACT 49
表目錄
表一、研究使用的花粉種類………………………………………………... 51
表二、於人工載台上添加豆葉粉及取食二點葉蟎時,溫氏捕植蟎飼之發育期………………………………………………………………….. 52
表三、於人工載台上添加豆葉粉及取食不同花粉時,溫氏捕植蟎之發育期與死亡率….………………………………………………………. 53
表四、取食二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與冰樹花粉不同比例之混合食物時,捕植蟎之族群增殖….……………………………………………………. 54
表五、取食二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與含笑花花粉不同比例之混合食物時,捕植蟎之族群增殖….…………………………………………………. 57
表六、取食二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與孤挺花花粉不同比例之混合食物時,捕植蟎之族群增殖…………………………………..………………... 60
表七、溫氏捕植蟎以0.005克二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與0.005克冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉混合食物飼育時之族群增殖….…………………. 63
表八、溫氏捕植蟎以0.007克二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與0.003克冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉混合食物飼育時之族群增殖….…………………. 64
表九、溫氏捕植蟎以0.001克二點葉蟎卵-幼蟎與0.009克冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花粉混合食物飼育時之族群增殖……….……………..... 65
表十、花粉作為溫氏捕植蟎食物源之評估指數…….…………….……… 66
表十一、冰樹、含笑花及孤挺花花粉作為溫氏捕植蟎食物源之總評估值 68
表十二、溫氏捕植蟎取食二點葉蟎食餌與花粉之混合食物下,各飼育期之族群增殖量………………………………………….…. 69
圖目錄
圖一、添加豆葉粉於2 × 2㎝2人工載台上溫氏捕植蟎各齡期之逃跑率.. 70
圖二、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與冰樹花粉混合食物飼育時族群之齡期結構……………………………………………………………………… 71
圖三、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與含笑花花粉混合食物飼育時族群之齡期結構…………………………………………………………………… 72
圖四、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與孤挺花花粉混合食物飼育時族群之之齡期結構………………………………………………………………… 73
圖五、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與冰樹花粉混合食物飼育時族群之性比…. 74
圖六、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與含笑花花粉混合食物飼育時族群之性比... 75
圖七、溫氏捕植蟎以二點葉蟎與孤挺花花粉混合食物飼育時族群之性比... 76
圖.八、餵食0.005克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.005克冰樹花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………………. 77
圖.九、餵食0.007克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.003克冰樹花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式……………………………… 78
圖.十、餵食0.009克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.001克冰樹花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………………. 79
圖.十一、餵食0.005克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.005克含笑花花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………. 80
圖.十二、餵食0.007克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.003克含笑花花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………. 81
圖.十三、餵食0.009克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.001克含笑花花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………. 82
圖.十四、餵食0.005克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.005克孤挺花花粉之溫捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式…………………………. 83
圖.十五、餵食0.007克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.003克孤挺花花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………. 84
圖.十六、餵食0.009克二點葉蟎之卵及幼蟎與0.001克孤挺花花粉之溫氏捕植蟎族群各齡期密度之迴歸線及方程式………………………. 85

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