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研究生:陳建州
研究生(外文):Chien-Chou Chen
論文名稱:黃莪朮之抗氧化性質及抗致突變性質
論文名稱(外文):Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Curcuma zedoaria
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係喬長誠喬長誠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun MauCharng -Cherng Chyau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:213
中文關鍵詞:黃莪朮精油抗氧化性質抗致突變性質
外文關鍵詞:Curcuma zedoariaessential oilantioxidant propertiesantimutagenic properties
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摘 要
黃莪朮是常用的中藥材,在臨床上運用於子宮頸癌的治療。黃莪朮的萃取物及區分物具有許多療效,在醫療上已證實具有抗發炎、抗真菌及抗腫瘤作用。然而,有關抗氧化性及抗氧化成分方面之研究,目前尚未有完整之文獻報告。
黃莪朮是一種碳水化合物含量極高的植物,其以水蒸氣蒸餾—溶劑萃取法所得之精油,雖然產量很低,但其抗氧化性可高達70-87%,較天然抗氧化劑抗壞血酸強。莪朮精油經GC分析共鑑定出36種化合物,包括17種帖烯類、14種醇類及5種酮類化合物。以超臨界流體二氧化碳萃取法所得之萃取物,亦擁有不錯的抗氧化性,其萃取物以靜態萃取2小時之抗氧化力較動態萃取1小時強,但略差於精油。超臨界流體二氧化碳萃取法所得之萃取物經GC分析共鑑定出31種化合物,包括15種帖烯類、11種醇類及5種酮類化合物。
精油進一步以矽膠管柱層析分離,以不同比例之正戊烷及乙醚沖提所得之五個區分物中以區分物3及區分物4有較佳的抗氧化性。區分物4中則又以5 - isopropylidene- 3, 8 — dimethyl - 1(5H) - azulenone為主要成分。
黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物有不錯的抗氧化性(80%-94%),較抗壞血酸佳,接近抗氧化劑生育醇及BHA。在其餘抗氧化性質方面,如還原力、捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH·)能力、捕捉羥自由基能力及螯合亞鐵離子能力上亦有優異之捕捉效應。
由於黃莪朮甲醇萃取物具有較強的抗氧化能力,所以將甲醇萃取物經膠體管柱層析區分出八個區分物,並進行抗氧化性評估,以區分物六及區分物八的抗氧化性最佳。
在抗致突變測試方面,黃莪朮甲醇萃取物、水萃取物在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株系統對IQ、B[a]P及NQNO的致突變性也有明顯的抑制效果。
關鍵字:黃莪朮、精油、抗氧化性質、抗致突變性質
ABSTRACT
The rhizome of the plant Curcuma zedoaria, a topical herb of the Zingiberaceae family native to southern Asia. The Chinese traditional medicine Curcuma zedoaria ROSC. has been clinically used for the treatment of cervical cancer. Many of its components have reputed medicinal properties that have been demonstrated that the extracts and fractions from the dried rhizome of C. zedoaria used in traditional medicine possess anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antitumor activities. However, the study of its antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds had not been reported.
The objectives of this research were to study the antioxidative activities of extracts from C. zedoaria ROSC simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction, different solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and water extraction. This research was also investigate antioxidiative properties of methanolic extracts, water extract, essential oil and supercritical fluid extracts from the rhizome of C. zedoaria, such as reducing power, scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH●) radical, hydroxyl radical and chelating effect on ferrous ions.
C. zedoaria ROSC contained hight carbohydrate contents. The yield of essential oil with simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction was very low,but it showed 70-87% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the antioxidative activities of essential oil were better than ascorbic acid. The 36 components of essential oil had been identified by GC-MS, including 17 teperenes, 14 alcohols and 5 ketones. The extracts of supercritical fluid extraction showed the worse antioxidative activities than essential oil, and there were less intense of odor than essential oil. The 31 components of supercritical fluid extracts had been identified by GC-MS, including 15 teperenes, 11 alcohols and 5 ketones. The content of terpene and sesquiterpene might be the main factor to influence antioxidative activities between them.
The essential oil was further subjected to silica gel column chromatography eluted with various ratios of solvent′s composites from pentane and ether. The III and IV fractions showed markedly antioxidative activities in 5 separated fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography.
Methanolic and water extracts of C. zedoaria showed 80-94% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the antioxidative activities of them were better than ascorbic acid. Them exhibited the good effect not only in antioxidative activities, but also in other antioxidative properties, such as reducing power, scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH●) radical, hydroxyl radical and chelating effect on ferrous ions.
The antioxidative characteristics of methanolic extracts from C. zedoaria were investigated. The methanolic fractions was further subjected to silica gel column chromatography eluted with various ratios of solvent′s composites from hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The VI and VIII fractions showed markedly antioxidative activities in 8 separated fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography.
The antimutageneic characteristics of methanolic extracts from C. zedoaria were investigated. The methanolic and water extracts from C. zedoaria showed markedly inhibition on the mutagenicity of IQ、B[a]P and 4-NQNO to S. typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100 and TA102.
Keyword: Curcuma zedoaria, essential oil, antioxidant properties, antimutagenic properties
目 錄
表次…………………………………………………………………….X
圖次……………………………………………………………….…..XV
前言……………………………………………………………………...1
文獻整理………………………………………………………………3
一、莪朮的介紹..………………………………………………3
二、抗氧化性質………….……………………..……………………13
三、膳食與癌症的相關性……....………………………….………..25
四、水蒸氣蒸餾-溶劑萃取法及超臨界流體萃取方式之原理……...44
材料與方法…………………………………………………..……..50
一、實驗材料…………………………………………….………….50
1. 黃莪朮……………………………………………..…………..50
2. 試藥…………………………………………………………….50
3. 標準致突變劑……………….…………………………………51
4. Ames test 實驗用之培養基…………………………………..51
5. 試驗菌株……………………………………………………...51
二、實驗方法…………………………………………………………51
(一)黃莪朮樣品之製備…………………………………………...51
1.黃莪朮粉末樣品之製備………………………...…………...51
2.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之製備……………………………...…...52
3.黃莪朮水萃取物之製備……………………………………..52
4.黃莪朮精油之製備……………………………………….….52
5.黃莪朮超臨界流體萃取物之製備…………………………..52
6.黃莪朮精油區分物之製備…………………………………53
7.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物區分物之製備…………………………..53
(二)黃莪朮之樣品分分析….……………………..…………..53
1. 一般成分分析………………………………………………53
(1)水分之測定…………………………………………...53
(2)脂質之測定…………………………………………...54
(3)蛋白質之測定………………………………………...54
(4)灰分之測定…………………………………….……..55
(5)粗纖維之測定……………………………..…….….. .55
(6)還原糖之測定………………………………….…... ..56
(三)常見天然存在抗氧化成分a-生育醇、b-胡蘿蔔素、抗壞血
酸及總酚類化合物含量之分析………………….….....…..56
(1)生育醇測定……...…………….……………………....56
(2)b-胡蘿蔔素測定….………………………………....57
(3)抗壞血酸含量測定…………………………………...58
(4)總酚類化合物測定…………………………………...58
(四)化學成分分析…………………………..……...……58
1. 揮發性成分分析……………………………….……………..58
(五)黃莪朮萃取物之抗氧化性質分析……….……………..…60
1. 抗氧化能力之測定………...…………………………………60
(1)亞麻油酸氧化作用之抑制(DETBA法)………..…60
(2) 微脂粒氧化作用抑制之測定(TBARS法)……..……..60
(3) 共軛雙烯法之測定(Conjugated diene法)…………....61
2. 還原力之測定……………………………………………..…61
3. 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH·)能力之測定……..62
4. 清除羥自由基能力之測定…………..………………………62
5. 螯合亞鐵離子能力之測定………..…………………………62
(六)黃莪朮萃取物之抗致突變性質分析……….……….63
1. 毒性試驗……………………………………………………63
2. 致突變性分析………………………………………………63
3. 抗突變性試驗………………………………………………64
(1)標準致突變劑溶液之製備…………………………..64
(2)抗致突變試驗方法…………………………………..64
(七) 統計分析………..………………………………65
結果與討論………………………………………………………..66
一、黃莪朮之一般成分分析……………………………………...66
二、不同萃取方式黃莪朮萃取物之萃取率………..…………….68
三、不同萃取方式黃莪朮萃取物之抗氧化性質……………...…69
(一)黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化性質………....69
1.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力………….…69
2.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之還原力……..……….…78
3.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦
味基團之能力…………………………………………...81
4.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物螯合亞鐵離子之能力…...84
5.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之抗氧化成分分析…………….…….88
(二)甲醇區分物之抗氧化性質………………..…......………..91
1.黃莪朮甲醇區分物之抗氧化力……………………………..91
2.黃莪朮甲醇區分物之還原力……………………….……96
3.黃莪朮甲醇區分物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團之能力……………………………….…..………………………101
4.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物捕捉羥自由基能力……...104
5.黃莪朮甲醇區分物螯合亞鐵離子之能力………………...108
(三)黃莪朮精及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之分析.108
1.黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物
成分之探討……………………………..……………..….112
2.黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物
抗氧化性質之探討…………………………………..…...122
(1) 黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取
物之抗氧化力……………………………………...122
(2) 黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取
物之還原力………………………….…..…….…..136
(3) 黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取
物之清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團之能力……..…142
(4) 黃莪朮精油、精油區分物及超臨界二氧化碳萃取
物螯合亞鐵離子之能力………………....…….……147
四、不同萃取方式黃莪朮萃取物之毒性、致突變性及
抗致突變性質…………………………..……..…………152
(一)黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之毒性、致突變性及抗突
變性質………...……………………….……………...….152
1. 黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之毒性…...……….………………..152
2. 黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之致突變性……..……....………156
3. 黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之抗突變性………………..……160
(二)黃莪朮水萃取物之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性
質………...……………………….……………...……..168
1.黃莪朮水萃取物之毒性….………..……….……………....170
2.黃莪朮水萃取物之致突變性…………..…………..………173
3.黃莪朮甲醇萃取物之抗突變性……………………………175
(三)黃莪朮精油之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性
質……………………………………………………….184
1.黃莪朮精油之毒性…………………………………………184
2.黃莪朮精油之致突變性………………………..………….189
3.黃莪朮精油之抗突變性…………….……………………..189
結論……………………………………………………...………201
參考文獻……………………………………....………………203
表 次
表一、黃莪朮乾燥根之一般組成………………………………..…67
表二、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物水萃取物精油及超臨界
二氧化碳萃取物之萃取率…………………………..……..……68
表三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物汲水萃取物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)……………………………………………………70
表四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力
(TBARS法)………………………………………….…..73
表五、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)……...…………………………………….76
表六、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之還原力………………..….…79
表七、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味
基團能力之力…………………………………..…82
表八、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯
合能力…………………………………………………………86
表九、黃莪朮粉末、黃莪朮甲醇萃取取物及水萃取物
中抗壞血酸、b-胡蘿蔔素、生育醇和多酚類含量……………89
表十、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物經管柱層析後各區分物之產率……………90
表十一、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)…………..………………………………………92
表十二、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(TBARS法)……………..…………………...…………….…94
表十三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)………………………………………………97
表十四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之還原力……..……………99
表十五、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味
基團能力……….…...………………………….………...102
表十六、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物對DMPO-OH EPR複合
物光譜訊號強度之影響……………………………………105
表十七、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物對亞鐵離子之
螯合能力…………………..……………………….……....110
表十八、黃莪朮精油區分物之產率…………………………….…114
表十九、黃莪朮精油及其超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之組成……….116
表二十、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之組成……………………….…119
表二十一、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)…………..……………………………..……123
表二十二、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力 (DETBA法)……..…125
表二十三、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(TBARS 法)………………………………………..……...128
表二十四、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力(TBARS 法)………..130
表二十五、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)…………………………..…………..…...132
表二十六、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)…………………………….…………...135
表二十七、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之還原力………....138
表二十八、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之還原力……………….…..…….140
表二十九、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物捕捉
1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力……………..……….143
表三十、黃莪朮精油及其區分物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團
能力………………………………………….…………….145
表三十一、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯
合能力…………………………………………………..148
表三十二、黃莪朮精油及其區分物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力………....150
表三十三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(未添加S9混合物)…………………......153
表三十四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(添加S9混合物)………….……………...154
表三十五、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(未添加S9混合物)……….………....157
表三十六、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(添加S9混合物)………………….....158
表三十七、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)
quinoline (IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….161
表三十八、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………163
表三十九、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響………….166
表四十、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(未添加S9混合物)……………….….....169
表四十一、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(添加S9混合物)……………..………......170表四十二、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(未添加S9混合物).....………….....174
表四十三、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(添加S9混合物)…..….………….....175
表四十四、黃莪朮水萃取物對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)
quinoline (IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….177
表四十五、黃莪朮水萃取物對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………180
表四十六、黃莪朮水萃取物對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響……………….182
表四十七、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(未添加S9混合物)….…….………….......185
表四十八、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(添加S9混合物)…...……….………….....186
表四十九、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(未添加S9混合物)…....………….....190
表五十、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(添加S9混合物)..…….………….....191表五十一、黃莪朮精油對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)
quinoline (IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….193
表五十二、黃莪朮精油對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌
Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………196
表五十三、黃莪朮精油對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響……….………..198
圖 次
圖一、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)…………………………………………...….…71
圖二、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力
(TBARS法)…………………………………………………74
圖三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)…………………………………………77
圖四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之還原力……………………80
圖五、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物之抗氧化力捕捉
1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力…………….………83
圖六、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及水萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合
能力……………………………………………………..…87
圖七、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)………………………….……………………93
圖八、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(TBARS法)……………………………………..……………95
圖九、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵法)……………………………………………98
圖十、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物之還原力………………..100
圖十一、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物捕捉
1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力……..……....……….….103
圖十二、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物捕捉DMPO-OH複合物
之電子順磁共振光譜圖…………….……………..….…106
圖十三、黃莪朮甲醇區分物捕捉DMPO-OH複合物
之電子順磁共振光譜圖……………...……...………..…..107
圖十四、黃莪朮甲醇區分物捕捉DMPO-OH複合物
之電子順磁共振光譜圖………...……………………..…..109
圖十五、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物及其區分物對亞鐵離子之螯合
能力…………………………………………………..…….111
圖十六、黃莪朮精油及其超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之組成
GC圖………………………………………………………115
圖十七、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之組成GC圖…………………..119
圖十八、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(DETBA法)……………………………………...…….…..124
圖十九、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力 (DETBA法)……..……126
圖二十、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(TBARS 法)…………………………………………...…..128
圖二十一、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力(TBARS 法)..….……131
圖二十二、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之抗氧化力
(共軛雙烯鍵)……………………………………………..133
圖二十三、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之抗氧化力(共軛雙烯鍵法)…..…136
圖二十四、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物之還原力……...….139
圖二十五、黃莪朮精油及其區分物之還原力.………………………...141
圖二十六、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物捕捉
1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力………….………………..144
圖二十七、黃莪朮精油及其區分物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團
能力……………………………………………………..146
圖二十八、黃莪朮精油及超臨界二氧化碳萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合
能力……………………………………………….....149
圖二十九、黃莪朮精油及其區分物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力…………151
圖三十、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗……………………………….………….....155
圖三十一、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗………………………….………….....159
圖三十二、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)
quinoline (IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….162
圖三十三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌
Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………164
圖三十四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響………….167
圖三十五、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗……………………………….………….....172
圖三十六、黃莪朮水萃取物對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗………………………….………….....176
圖三十七、黃莪朮水萃取物對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)
quinoline (IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….178
圖三十八、黃莪朮水萃取物對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌
Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………181
圖三十九、黃莪朮水萃取物對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響……….……….183
圖四十、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之毒性試驗(未添加S9混合物)……….………….....187
圖四十一、黃莪朮精油對鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella
typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌
株之致突變性試驗(添加S9混合物)…….………….....192
圖四十二、黃莪朮精油對2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo(4,5-f)quinoline
(IQ) 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium
TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響….194
圖四十三、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對Benzo[a]pyrene 在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌
Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102
等菌株致突變性之影響……………………..……………197
圖四十四、黃莪朮甲醇萃取物對4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)
在鼠傷寒沙門桿菌Salmonella typhimurium TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102等菌株致突變性之影響………….199
附 表
附表一、氧衍生之自由基對人體可能造成之傷害…………………..…14
附表二、食物中的化學防護劑之種類…………..………………………32
附表三、次哺乳類測試系統……………….…………….…………38
附表四、次哺乳類體外測試系統…………..….……..…………………39
附表五、次哺乳類體內測試系統………………..…….……………...…40
附表六、用來偵測致突變性的鼠傷寒桿菌系統之基因型態…….…….42
附 圖
附圖一、黃莪朮圖片………………………………………………………7
附圖二、倍半烯類化合物結構圖……………………………...……….9
附圖三、類薑黃素酮類化合物結構圖………………..…………………10
附圖四、自由基對細胞之傷害………………………………………..…15
附圖五、脂質自氧化反應途徑及其產物……………………..…………17
附圖六、IQ型和非IQ型之異環胺類結構………………………………27
附圖七、多環芳香羥之結構……………………………..………………29
附圖八、抗致突變之作用機制分類…………………………..…………34
附圖九、Likens-Nickerson裝置……………………………………….....45
附圖十、二氧化碳之相圖……………………………………..…………47
附圖十一、超臨界流體萃取裝置圖………………………………….….48
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