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研究生:黃秀如
研究生(外文):Shiu-Ru Hung
論文名稱:吳郭魚珍味加工品半平之研究與開發
論文名稱(外文):Research and Development of Dainty Hanpen from Tilapia
指導教授:柯文慶柯文慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ching Ko
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:1
中文關鍵詞:半平魚漿蒲鉾吳郭魚
外文關鍵詞:hanpensurimikamabokotilapia
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本實驗以省產大型吳郭魚為主原料,擂潰時加入本地產新鮮台農二號山藥,使製品具起泡性,製成具特別風味與質地之珍味魚肉煉製品半平。探討山藥的添加量(0% ~ 30%)對吳郭魚半平之組織特性之影響;此外探討不同擂潰轉速由400 ~ 2000 rpm下,產品組織變化情形。確立製作吳郭魚半平流程後並加以分析產品貯存時間,並且開發出不同的調理方式,喜好性品評觀察。所得結果如下:
1.成份分析結果發現,四種產品水分含量均在74.1~76.6 (%)之間、脂質含量為0.3∼0.8%;蛋白質含量約8.3% ~10.1 %;醣類為9.4~11.3% ; pH值為6.5~6.6、鹽度為2.1~2.5%、灰分(%)為2.5~2.7。
2.以日本市售四種產品色澤方面,具高亮度(76.4~85.5)與白色度(66.5~75.0) ,且a值(0.3 ~ 0.7)與b值 (3 ~ 5),顯示半平產品主要為白色具有亮度之色澤所構成。在凝膠強度方面之breaking force 為70 ~ 95g,而breaking stress為6.13 ~ 7.45 mm,之凝膠強度介於490 ~ 689 g×mm;保水力介於29.3 ~ 41.0%之間;電泳分析結果顯示,其分子量(31 kDa)以下之蛋白質多,且大分子(200kDa)也少於其他產品。
3.山藥添加量對吳郭魚半平之分析,發現添加10%山藥時,吳郭魚半平之凝膠強度及保水力皆大於未添加者。當添加量為20~30% 時,其凝膠強度及保水力則明顯較未添加者低。另外,山藥添加會使得吳郭魚魚半平密度明顯降低,山藥添加量愈多時,產品密度愈降低。且山藥添加量於10 ~ 20%,會使得吳郭魚半品亮度與白色度增加,然而添加30%時,吳郭魚半品亮度與白色度降低;添加10%山藥會使其硬度、彈性度膠質度與咀嚼度比未添加山藥者高。而添加山藥量為20∼30%時,其七個參數值皆比未添加山藥者低,添加山藥量為10%時更為明顯的增加。
4.隨擂潰速度增加(400~2000rpm)及山藥量增加對吳郭魚半平質感之硬度、易脆度及咀嚼度皆有明顯下降趨勢。吳郭魚半平附著度則隨擂潰速度與山藥添加量而增加。隨擂潰速度增加對吳郭魚半平之L值、W.I.值有上昇趨勢。轉速越快密度越低,所包覆的空氣就會增加,組織孔洞也相對增多。
5.貯存試驗中,總生菌數、凝膠強度和色澤方面,在7天後皆明顯變化,因此貯存條件為於低溫(4 ℃)下可貯存7天。
6.調理方式以煎方式較讓大家喜愛,而風味方面則煎及炒皆被大家喜愛,依整體感則以煎的調理方式為大家所喜愛。
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to investigate the ingredient compositions of Japan’s Hanpen products and to elevate the usage of tilapia by producing the tilapia Hanpen products in Taiwan. With additional forthy functionality of Hanpen product, its quality can also be improved by adding 10% Yam. The objectives of this research are also to make especial texture and savory fish muscle gel. The results are as follows:
1.The compositions of Happen products in Japan are moisture content 74.1-76.6%, crude fat 0.3-0.8%, crude protein 8.3-10.1%, carbohydrate 9.4-11.3%, crude ash 2.5-2.7%, and Salinity 2.1-2.5%. The pH value is 6.5-6.6.
2.The texture character of Hanpen products in Japan are L value 76.4-85.5%, Whiteness 66.5-75, a value 0.3-0.7 and b value 3-5. The results show hanpen products with higher whiteness and lightness. Breaking stress, breaking strain and breaking strength are 70-95g, 6.13-7.45 mm and 490-689 gxmm, respectively. SDS-PAGE detect molecular weight at 31 kDa is 200kDa.
3.Gel strength and water-holding capacity of tilapia Hanpen were enhanced with added 10% Yam than untreated. When added 20%-30% Yam the gel strength and water holding capacity were lower than untreated. In addition, the density of tilapia Hanpen was lower with added 10% to 30% Yam. Tilapia Hanpen added with 10%-20% Yam was lighter (higher L value) and less red (lower a value) then added with 0% to 30% Yam. Many small holes were observed in the presence of products with added Yam and this structure was transformed into a sponge-like structure network in microstructure on tilapia Hanpen.
4.The hardness, factorability, chewiness and density of tilapia Hanpen were lower with increased grinding speed (400-2000 rpm) and percentage of Yam added. Though, adhesiveness was increased and L value and W.I. were increased with increased grinding speed.
5.Total plate count, Gel strength, Hunter L value, b value and whiteness of tilapia Hanpen were changed during storage of seven days.
6.Frying is preferred compared with different cooking methods of tilapia Hanpen. Sensory evaluation shows the frying and parching of tilapia Hanpen taste better. However, in total acceptability frying is the most flavored method.
目錄
圖表索引
壹、前言
一、研究目的……………………………………………….……………1
二、文獻整理…………………………………………………………….2
(一) 吳郭魚生產現況………………………………………………2
(二) 山藥之介紹……………………………………………...…….3
1.山藥品種與分布…………………………………...………..4
2.山藥的化學組成與營養成分……………………………….5
3.山藥加工產品……….………………………………….……6
(三) 煉製品……………………………………..………….………7
1.煉製品之種類………………………….…..….…………….8
2.半平(hanpen)介紹……………………..….…....……………8
3.煉製品的質感………….……………………………………9
(四) 魚漿凝膠形成因素…………………………….……….……10
1.蛋白質凝膠之形成機制…….…………………….……..…10
2.成膠性物質對煉製品之影響….…………………………...13
(五) 珍味食品…………………………….…………….…………15
貳、材料與方法……………..……………………...……………………17
一、實驗架構…………………..……………….………………………17
二、實驗材料………………….………………….…………………….17
三、方法…………………………………………………………….…..18
(一) 吳郭魚半平之製備……….…….………………..………….18
(二) 成分分析………………….………………………..……….18
1. 水分….…………………………….………………………18
2. 粗蛋白質…………………………..………………………18
3. 粗脂質…….………………………….……………………21
4. 粗灰分……………………………...……..……………..…21
5. 碳水化合物………………………………….……………..21
6. 鹽分………………………………...….……….…………..21
7. pH值…………….………………………….……..………..23
(三)製品品質特性………..…………..……………….…..………23
1. 凝膠強度……………………………………….….………23
2. 光學顯微鏡觀察………………………………….....……..23
3. 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察…………………………………..24
4. 保水力………………………………………………..……24
5. 假密度……………………………………………………..24
6. 色澤………………………………………………….……..25
7. SDS-PAGE………………………………………....………25
8. 動態流變儀………………………………………..………30
9. 質感圖譜分析……………………………………………..30
10. 烹煮損失率………………………………………………30
11. 總生菌數…………………………………………………30
12. 嗜好性官能品評…………………………………….……31
(四)統計分析………..……………………………………..……31
參、結果與討論………………………………………………….…… 31
ㄧ、日本市售半平之成分分析與組織特性之探討………..….…..….31
(一)一般成分分析……………….……………………….……31
(二)色澤與凝膠特性分析………….….………………………32
(三)SEM觀察………….………………………………………33
(四)SDS-PAGE分析………….…………………………….…34
二、不同山藥添加量對吳郭魚半平組織特性之探討….……..……41
(一)吳郭魚半平之製備………………………..………………41
(二)凝膠強度………………………………………..…………41
(三)保水力分析……………………………………….……….42
(四)密度分析……………………………………………..……43
(五)色澤分析…………………………………………..………43
(六)動態流變分析……………………………………….….…48
(七)質感分析………………………………………..…………49
(八)烹煮損失率分析……………………………………..……50
(九)微細結構之觀察……………………………..……………50
三、擂潰速度對吳郭魚半平組織與質地之探討………………..…..…65
(一)凝膠強度分析……….……………………………….….....65
(二)質敢分析……...…….…………………………….………..66
(三)色澤分析…………….……………………………….….....66
(四)密度分析……….…………………………………...……..66
(五)保水力分析……….………………………………....……..67
四、低溫貯藏對吳郭魚半平品質之影響………………….……..……79
(一)總生菌數分析………….…………………………….….…78
(二)色澤變化分析……….………………………………..….79
(三)凝膠強度………………………………………..…..……79
(四)吳郭魚半平於不同烹調方式之喜好性分析討…….79
肆、結論………………………………………………………………..81
伍、參考文獻…………………………………………………………….82
圖表索引
Figure 1. Scheme showing the preparation of Japanese style………..…11
Figure 2. Flow sheet of the experiment for the effect of gel characteristics of tilapia hanpen………………………………………….18
Figure 3. Four hanpen products placed on market in Japan……………………………………………….…..……19
Figure 4. Preparation of Tilapia hanpen…………………………..…….21
Figure 5. SDS-PAGE pattern of hanpen products placed on market in Japan…………………………………………………………..37
Figure 6. Scanning electron microscopy of hanpen products placed on market in Japan……………………………………………..…38
Figure 7. Effects of various yams on the gel strength of tilapia hanpen……………………………………………………...….43
Figure 8. Effects of various yams on the breaking stress and breaking strain of tilapia hanpen…………………………………..…... 44
Figure 9. The effects of various yams on the water—holding capacity of tilapia hanpen ………………………………………………....45
Figure 10. Effects of various yams on L value of tilapia hanpen ……... .51
Figure 11. Effects of various yams on the b value of tilapia hanpen …....52
Figure 12. Effects of various yams on the whitness of tilapia hanpen… .53
Figure 13. Dynamic viscoelasticty measurement of fish-meat paste heated from 30 to 90℃………………………………………….…... 54
Figure 14. Dynamic viscoelasticty measurement of fish-meat paste heated from 30 to 90℃……………………………………….……....55
Figure 15. Effects of various yams on cook loss of tilapia hanpen……..56
Figure 16. Micrographs (100x) of tilapia hanpen containing various yams..………………………………………………………….61
Figure 17. Micrographs (100x) of tilapia hanpen containing various yams………………………………………………….………..62
Figure 18. Effects of grinding speeded on baeaking stress and breaking strin of tilapia hanpen ………………………………………...66
Figure 19. Effects of grinding speeded on gel strength of tilapia hanpen………………………………………………………... 67
Figure 20. Effect of grinding speeded on L value of tilapia hanpen …....68
Figure 21. Effect of grinding speeded on b value of tilapia hanpen……..69
Figure 22. Effect of grinding speeded on whitness value of tilapia hanpen……………………………………………………….. 70
Figure 23. Total plate count change of tilapia hanpen during storage…. 79
Figure 24. Total plate count change of tilapia hanpen during storage..….80
Figure 25. L, a, b value of tilapia hanpen during storage……….….…....81
Table 1. The percentage of reagents for SDS-PAGE analysis……….…..28
Table 2. The proximate compositions of Hanpen market products placed in Japan……………………………………………………..34
Table 3. Color analysis of hanpen market products placed in Japan…….35
Table 4. Gel strength and water-holding capacity of Hanpen market products placed in Japan………………………………..…..36
Table 5. Effects of yams on the density measurement of tilapia hanpen…………………………………………………….50
Table 6. Effect of various yams on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen………………………………………………….…51
Table 7. Effect of various yams on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen………………………………………………....….52
Table 8. Effects of various yams on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen…………………………………………….………53
Table 9. Effects of various yams on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen…………………………………………………...….54
Table10. Effects of grinding speed on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen………………………………………….…………71
Table 11. Effect of grinding speed on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen………………………………………….…………...72
Table 12. Effect of grinding speed on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen……………………………………….………...….73
Table 十三. Effects of the grinding speed on textural characteristics of tilapia hanpen…………………..…………………………...74
Table 14. Effect of grinding speeded on the density measurement of tilapia hanpen…………………………….……………………..….75
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