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研究生:張惠玲
研究生(外文):Chang Hui Ling 張蕙玲(中文名字有誤)
論文名稱:紅麴薏仁之呈味品質、抗氧化性質及其貯藏安定性
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Quality, Antioxidant Properties and store stability of Monacal adlay
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun Mau, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:紅麴菌薏仁呈味品質抗氧化性質貯藏試驗
外文關鍵詞:Monascus sppadlayquality evaluationantioxidant propertiesstorage
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自古以來,薏仁即為人類食用的農產品之一,因含有豐富的澱粉、膳食纖維、蛋白質、維生素和礦物質,故常作為良好的健康素材。薏仁具特殊生理機能之成分而有抗腫瘤性及降血脂作用;紅麴菌亦會產生多種對人類有益的代謝產物,具有降低膽固醇、降低血壓、抗氧化的特性。薏仁及紅麴皆具有對人體有效之保健機能性成分,目前已有業者將紅麴接種薏仁,得到紅麴薏仁之新產品。
故本研究之目的為:評估紅麴薏仁之一般成分、呈味品質及其貯藏期間油脂安定性,測定紅麴薏仁抗氧化性質和抗氧化成分之分析,測定膽固醇合成抑制劑(Monacolin K)與胺基丁酸(γ-GABA)之含量。
在薏仁製品品質評估方面,所使用之薏仁製品有四種分別為糙薏仁、紅麴糙薏仁、白薏仁和紅麴白薏仁。紅麴糙薏仁和紅麴白薏仁含有較高的蛋白質(24.83、22.25%)且紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁的粗纖維含量(15.94、14.39%)明顯的高於糙薏仁與白薏仁(4.45、3.36%);在碳水化合物方面,紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁(36.98、34.93%)低於糙薏仁與白薏仁(72.93、72.58%)。葡萄糖是不同薏仁製品中主要的可溶性糖,其中糙薏仁可溶性糖含量最多;紅麴糙薏仁、紅麴白薏仁與糙薏仁和白薏仁均含有九種必需胺基酸,但是離胺酸含量較少。在呈味性質方面,紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁呈味性質性質欠佳,是以苦味為主。油酸、亞麻油酸和棕櫚酸為薏仁製品的主要脂肪酸。Citrinin 為黴菌代謝產生之有毒物質,樣品中並未檢測出來。
抗氧化性質的測定方面,所使用之薏仁製品有六種分別為糙薏仁、紅麴糙薏仁、熟糙薏仁、白薏仁、紅麴白薏仁和熟白薏仁。紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁之甲醇萃取物皆具有強的抗氧化性質,在抗氧化力(共軛雙烯法)、還原力、捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH·)、及螯合亞鐵離子之能力亦隨著其濃度增加而有上升之趨勢;其次為糙薏仁與白薏仁之甲醇萃取物,抗氧化性質最差者為熟糙薏仁與熟白薏仁。在天然抗氧化成分方面,六種薏仁製品之甲醇萃取物中皆含有多酚類化合物。
定期取樣分析油脂中薏仁酯之含量、油脂酸價、過氧化價和脂肪酸組成,探討紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁貯藏期間的變化。結果顯示,紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁在室溫下貯存油脂的酸價和過氧化價均上升。薏仁酯的含量隨著貯藏的時間增加慢慢的減少。脂肪酸組成主要為油酸、亞麻油酸和棕櫚酸,隨著貯藏時間的增加而減少,而單元和多元不飽和脂肪酸有減少的趨勢。Monacolin K和胺基丁酸在0~3月的貯藏中並沒有很大的變化。
關鍵字:紅麴菌、薏仁、呈味品質、抗氧化性質、貯藏試驗
Adlay have been one of the edible farm products since ancient times. They are rich in starch, dietary fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals as well as healthy materials. Adlay possesses specifically functional components, which exhibit antitumor, and hypolipidemic effects. Fungus Monascus spp. produces several metabolites, which are beneficially to human health and exhibit hypocholesterolic, hypotensional and antioxidant properties. Both the fungus and adlay possess functional components effective in improving human health. Currently, the fungus was inoculated into adlay and produced new product after the colonization of fungal mycelia.
The approaches of this research are as follows: frist to measure the content of monacolin K and γ-GABA and to study the stability of adlay lipid during storage,second to determine the antioxidant properties of monascal adlay and its contents of antixidant components.
With regard to the quality of four adlay products, dehulled adlay, monacal dehulled adlay, polished adlay and moncal polished adlay were used in this study. Monacal dehulled adlay and monacal polished adlay contained higher protein (24.83, 22.25%). Monacal dehulled adlay and monacal polished adlay contained more crude fiber (15.94, 14.39%) than dehulled adlay and polished adlay (4.45, 3.36%), respectively. Glucose is the major soluble sugar in various adlay products and dehulled adlay contained higher than others. Monacal dehulled adlay, monacal polished adlay, dehulled adlay and polished adlay contained nine kinds of essential amino acids. The taste characteristics of monacal dehulled adlay and monacal polished adlay are not good, bitter is the major taste characteristic. The major construct fatty acids in the oil were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids.
With regard to the antioxidant properties of six adlay products, dehulled adlay, monacal dehulled adlay, cooked dehulled adlay, polished adlay, moncal polished adlay and cooked polished adlay were used in this study. Both methanolic extracts of monacal dehulled adlay and monacal polished adlay showed very high antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activity using the conjugated diene method, the reducing power, the scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) and the chelating effect on ferrous ions of methanolic extracts from monacal dehulled adlay and monacal polished adlay increased with the increased concentrations. Polyphenol contents in six kinds of adlay products might be the major effective component for their better antioxidant attributes.
Completed random design and factorial experimental design were adopted to analyze the changes of coixenolide content, acid value and peroxide value and fatty acid composition of the monacal adlay oil extracted by ether. Resulta of the monacal adlay stored at room temperature, the acid value and peroxide value of their oils increased for three months.
Coixenolide content in the oil decreased with increase of storage time. The major construct fatty acids in the oil were oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly after storage. Monacolin K and γ-GABA did’t change with increased storage time.
Keyword: Monascus spp, adlay, quality evaluation, antioxidant properties, storage
目 錄
表次………………………………………………………………….Ⅹ
圖次…………………………………………………………….….Ⅹii
前言……………………………………………………………………1
文獻整理…………………………………………………………….3
一、薏苡………………………………….……………….…..…….3
二、紅麴菌…………………...……………..…………..………..…10
三、Monacolin K能降低膽固醇…………….……….……...….17
四、降低血壓的物質γ-胺基丁酸……………..……....…..…..18
五、抗氧化性質………………………………………...…….…..18
六、營養與呈味性質………………………………………….....32
七、Citrinin…………………………………...……………………33
材料與方法………………………………………………………..35
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………...35
1.實驗所用之薏仁製品………………………………….35
2.藥品……………………………………………………….35
二、實驗方法…………………………………………………..38
(一)不同薏仁製品一般成分分析………………………..37
1.不同薏仁製品粉末製備…………………………...……….37
2.一般成分分析………………………………………..……..37
a.水分……………………………………………..……….37
b.脂質…………………………………………..……….…37
c.蛋白質……………………………………………..….…39
d.灰份…………………………………………………..….39
e.粗纖維………………………………………………...…40
f.還原糖………………………………………………….40
(二)不同薏仁製品呈味品質分析………………………41
1. 可溶性糖類之測定……………………..…………………..41
a.可溶性糖類之萃取…………………….……………….41
b.高效能液相層析法…………………….……………….41
2. 胺基酸組成之測定……………………..…………………..42
a.總胺基酸之萃取……………………………………..…42
b.游離胺基酸之萃取………………………………..……42
c.高效能液相層析儀分析方法………………………..….42
3.核苷酸之測定………………………………………………44
a.核苷酸之萃取………………………………………….44
b.高效能液相層析法…………………………………….44
(三)不同薏仁製品甲醇萃取物抗氧化性質分析……44
1.樣品萃取……………………………………………………44
2.抗氧化力之測定……………………………………………45
a. 1,3-二乙基-2-硫巴比妥酸(DETBA)法之測定……..…45
b. 氫過氧化物(POV)法之測定……………………..…….45
c. 微脂粒氧化作用之抑制(TBARS)法………..………..46
d. 共軛雙烯(AOA)法之測定………………...….……….47
3.清除自由基能力之測定……………………………………47
三、捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH·)…………47
四、捕捉羥自由基(hydroxyl radical)能力之測定……47
4.還原力之測定……………………………………………48
5.螯合亞鐵離子之測定……………………………………48
(四)不同薏仁製品甲醇萃取物抗氧化成分之分析…49
1.總酚類化合物測定………………………………………49
2.抗壞血酸含量測定………………………………………49
3.b-胡蘿蔔素測定……………………………………………49
4.生育醇測定…………………………………………………50
(五)紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁之貯藏試驗
(0、1、2、3和6月)……………………….…..51
2.薏仁酯含量之測定…………………………………………51
3.油脂的酸價之測定…………………………………………52
4.過氧化價之測定……………………………………………52
5.脂肪酸組成之測定…………………………………………53
6.膽固醇合成抑制劑Monacolin K之測定………………….54
7.降低血壓的物質γ-胺基丁酸之測定………………………54
(六)紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁citrinin含量測定……55
三、統計分析…………………………………………………56
結果與討論
一、不同薏仁製品一般成分分析………………………..57
二、不同薏仁製品呈味品質分析……………….…….....60
1.可溶性糖類……………………………………………..60
2.核苷酸………………………………………………………60
3.游離胺基酸…………………………………………..…61
4.游離胺基酸呈味特性………………………………………62
5.總胺基酸…………………………………………………62
6.脂肪酸………………………………………………………62
三、不同薏仁製品甲醇萃取物抗氧化性質分析….……69
1.樣品萃取率………………………….…………………..…69
2.抗氧化力分析 ………………………………….………….69
a.1,3-二乙基-2-硫巴比妥酸(DETBA)法…………..…….69
b.氫過氧化物(POV)法…………………………….……72
c.微脂粒氧化作用之抑制(TBARS)法………………….75
d.共軛雙烯(AOA)法………………………………..….78
3.清除自由基能力……………………………………..…..82
4.還原力……………………………………………………87
5.亞鐵離子之螯合能力………………………………………92
四、不同薏仁製品甲醇萃取物抗氧化成分之分析…95
五、紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁之貯藏試驗
(0、1、2、3和6月)……………….……..……….101
1.薏仁酯含量…………………………………………..……101
2.油脂的酸價…………………………………………..……103
3.過氧化價……………………………………………...…...103
4.脂肪酸組成………………………………………………..105
5.膽固醇合成抑制劑Monacolin K………………………....105
6.降低血壓的物質γ-胺基丁酸……………………………..109
六、紅麴糙薏仁與紅麴白薏仁citrinin含量…..……….109
結論……………………………………………..…………………...113
參考文獻…………………………………………………………. 115
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