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研究生:朱聖哲
研究生(外文):Sheng-Che Chu
論文名稱:貯藏條件對虹鱒肌肉特性及煙燻製品品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Storage Conditions on Muscle Properties and Smoked Product Quality of Rainbow Trout
指導教授:柯文慶柯文慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ching Ko
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:虹鱒僵直解僵煙燻
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
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本研究係以省產養殖虹鱒為材料,分別於25、4、0℃下貯藏0-4天,探討魚肉特性、鮮度與衛生品質的變化,並將不同貯藏溫度下僵直與解僵的魚肉進行鹽漬、煙燻處理,藉以比較其加工過程和煙燻產品的差異性。所得結果如下:
1. 25℃貯藏下,魚體易於僵直也易於解僵;0℃貯藏下,魚體由於低溫刺激,較4℃下貯藏魚體,更易發生僵直的現象,但皆於貯藏24hr後開始發生解僵的現象。
2. 25℃貯藏下,魚肉由於熱促進僵直作用,使其魚肉較4℃、0℃貯藏者具有更低的pH值;4℃、0℃下貯藏的魚體pH值在其僵直進行過程中也快速下降,並隨貯藏時間的增加而呈現微幅的下降。
3. 25℃貯藏期間,由於魚肉發生熱變性,其蛋白質溶解度與凝膠強度會持續下降;4℃、0℃貯藏下,正值僵直期的魚肉其蛋白質溶解度與凝膠強度會降低,解僵後則會出現再上升現象。
4. 25℃貯藏下,魚肉K值上升快速,14hr後已達61%;4℃、0℃貯藏下,魚肉K值於解僵前僅微幅上升,而解僵發生後K值上升的速率會加快,4天後K值皆未超過40%。
5.由DSC分析及組織切片觀察可知,魚肉在各溫度貯藏過程中會持續發生蛋白質變性與肌纖維間的分離,其中又以25℃貯藏下最為明顯。
6. 25℃貯藏10.5hr及4℃貯藏96hr後,魚肉中一個分子量約為6.5 kDa的蛋白質會消失,應是受其內源性酵素作用水解所致。
7. 魚體於25℃貯藏下,總生菌數的增加極快,14hr後已達6.45 log CFU/g;4℃、0℃貯藏下,魚體嗜冷菌數於96hr後分別達到4.13、3.72 log CFU/g。
8.經鹽漬、煙燻及消費者品評試驗後,選定魚片經5%鹽漬液鹽漬兩天,再以65℃煙燻4hr作為煙燻處理條件。
9.不同貯藏溫度解僵組魚肉,在鹽漬及煙燻過程中,皆較僵直組魚肉呈現較高的鹽滲透及水分喪失速度,應是其魚肉嫩化的現象較明顯所致。
10. 不同貯藏溫度解僵組魚肉在煙燻過程中,其彈度、凝聚度、咀嚼感會出現先升後降的現象 ,應與解僵魚肉的加熱收縮與熱促進的組織破壞有關。
11. 由消費者品評結果得知,煙燻解僵組魚片除了香氣之外,其他產品特性皆與煙燻僵直組魚片一致。
Rainbow trouts(Salmo gairdneri)were stored at 25, 4, and 0℃ for 0 to 4 days to investigate the changes in muscle properties, freshness and sanitation quality of fish. The fillets obtained from the fish stored at various temperatures with in-rigor and post-rigor states were salted, and then smoked. During salting and smoking, the differences in processing quality of the fillets were compared. The results obtained were as follows:
1. The onset and resolution of rigor mortis were easy to occur for postmortem fish stored at 25℃. The onset of rigor mortis occurred faster for fish stored at 0℃ than at 4℃due to cold shorten effect, but the resolution for both rigor mortis started when they were stored over 24hr.
2. The postmortem fish stored at 25℃ showed lower pH than that stored at 4 and 0℃ due to heat-induced rigor mortis. pH value of fish meat stored at 4 and 0℃ decreased rapidly in the course of rigor mortis but decreased slowly in the residual storage time.
3. Protein solubility and gel strength of the fish meat decreased continuously during storage at 25℃ due to heat-induced denature of protein, while decrease in rigor stage and increase in off-rigor stage were observed for that stored at 4 and 0℃.
4. K value of fish meat stored at 25℃ increased rapidly and reached 61% after 14hr. That of fish meat stored at 0 and 4℃ slowly increased in the rigor stage and slightly rapidly increased in the off-rigor stage. K value still kept below 40% after storage for 4 days.
5. DSC patterns and muscle texture observation showed that protein denature and muscle fiber separation continuously occurred during storage of fish meat. Obvious phenomena were obtained with raising storage temperature.
6. SDS-PAGE showed that the protein with molecular weight about 6.5 kDa disappeared for the fish stored at 25℃ for 10.5 hr or 4℃ for 96 hr. This probably related to the hydrolysis reaction of endogenous proteolysis enzymes existed in muscle tissues.
7. Total plate counts for the fish meat stored at 25℃ increased rapidly to 6.45 log CFU/g after storage for 14 hr. The psychrophilic bacteria counts for that stored at 4 and 0℃ were only 4.13、3.72 log CFU/g after storage for 96 hr, respectively.
8. According to the quality determination including sensory evaluation of fish meat during salting and smoking, salting fish meat in 5% salt solution for 2 days and subsequently smoking at 65℃ for 4 hr was appropriate as the conditions for final products preparation.
9. No matter storage temperatures, the fish meat with off-rigor state had higher salt infusion and water content loss rate than that with in-rigor state during salting and smoking. The degree of fish meat tenderization might be the key factor.
10. Springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of the fish meat with off-rigor state showed increase and subsequent decrease during smoking. These were resulted from the heat contraction and heat-induced destruction of fish meat.
11. Hedonic sensory evaluation showed no difference, except flavor, for the final products prepared from fish meat with off-rigor or in-rigor states.
目 次
中文摘要-------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------Ⅲ
圖表索引-------------------------------------------Ⅶ
壹、前言--------------------------------------------1
一、研究動機----------------------------------------1
二、研究背景----------------------------------------2
(一)省產養殖虹鱒的現況----------------------------2
(二)魚肉蛋白質------------------------------------3
(三)煙燻加工技術介紹-----------------------------13
三、研究目的---------------------------------------19
貳、材料與方法-------------------------------------19
一、材料-------------------------------------------19
二、實驗流程設計-----------------------------------20
三、實驗試藥---------------------------------------20
四、實驗方法---------------------------------------24
1.魚體僵直指數測定---------------------------------24
2.蛋白質濃度測定-----------------------------------24
3.蛋白質溶解度測定---------------------------------25
4.凝膠製備-----------------------------------------25
5.凝膠強度測定-------------------------------------25
6.保水力測定---------------------------------------26
7.K值的測定----------------------------------------26
8.電泳試驗-----------------------------------------26
9.組織切片-----------------------------------------31
10.示差掃瞄熱分析----------------------------------31
11.總生菌數及嗜冷菌數測定--------------------------31
12.pH值測定----------------------------------------31
13.水分測定----------------------------------------32
14.食鹽含量測定------------------------------------32
15.色澤測定----------------------------------------32
16.質地測定----------------------------------------32
17.官能品評----------------------------------------33
18.統計分析----------------------------------------33
參、結果與討論-------------------------------------34
一、虹鱒之僵直特性及貯藏期間之品質變化-------------34
僵直指數-------------------------------------------34
pH值-----------------------------------------------34
蛋白質溶解度---------------------------------------37
凝膠強度-------------------------------------------41
保水力---------------------------------------------41
K值------------------------------------------------46
ATP及相關化合物的含量------------------------------46
DSC測定--------------------------------------------49
電泳分析-------------------------------------------53
組織切片觀察---------------------------------------57
生菌數---------------------------------------------57
二、虹鱒煙燻加工條件之探討-------------------------63
(一)鹽漬-----------------------------------------63
食鹽含量變化---------------------------------------63
水分含量變化---------------------------------------66
生菌數變化-----------------------------------------66
(二)煙燻-----------------------------------------66
水分含量變化---------------------------------------66
色澤變化-------------------------------------------70
官能品評試驗---------------------------------------70
三、經不同溫度貯藏虹鱒煙燻品之品質比較-------------70
(一)鹽漬-----------------------------------------74
食鹽含量變化---------------------------------------74
水分含量變化---------------------------------------74
生菌數變化-----------------------------------------77
(二)煙燻-----------------------------------------77
水分含量變化---------------------------------------77
色澤變化-------------------------------------------77
質地測定-------------------------------------------82
官能品評-------------------------------------------82
肆、結論-------------------------------------------88
伍、參考文獻-------------------------------------- 89
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