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研究生:吳金雀
研究生(外文):Jin-Chai Wu
論文名稱:乾醃鴨胸肉之製作及其特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Manufacturing and Properties of Dry Cured Duck Meat
指導教授:陳明造陳明造引用關係劉登城
指導教授(外文):Ming-Tsao ChenDeng-Cheng Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:乾醃熟成
外文關鍵詞:dry-curedripening
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本研究目的在於利用鴨胸肉以乾醃火腿之製作方式製成乾醃鴨胸肉,於製作及熟成時間探討其化學特性、微生物菌相、游離胺基酸、脂肪酸組成、揮發性風味物質、黴菌抽出物毒性試驗及官能品評等項目,以瞭解鴨胸肉作為乾醃肉製品的可行性。
結果顯示:土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉表層部位之pH值隨著熟成時間而增加,而深層部位則沒有顯著的變化(p>0.05),且皆於熟成2週後表層之pH值顯著較深層部位者高(p<0.05)。水活性及水分含量方面土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉隨著熟成時間而顯著下降,乾醃土番鴨胸肉於熟成第4週深層部位之水活性顯著較表層部位者高(p<0.05),8週後則無顯著差異,而北京鴨胸肉表層及深層之水活性則於整個熟成時間無顯著差異(p>0.05)。土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉於熟成2及8週後表層部位之水分含量顯著較深層部位者低(p<0.05)。在亞硝基鐵血色素方面,土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉隨著熟成時間顯著增加(p<0.05)。其表層部位分別於熟成8及12週後達一穩定狀態,深層部位則皆於熟成4週後達一穩定狀態。土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉之食鹽含量,隨著熟成時間顯著增加(p<0.05),且約熟成4週後,其表層及深層部位皆已趨穩定狀態。色澤方面,土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉於熟成前4及8週,其色澤為鮮紅色,之後則轉變為暗紅色。
在微生物菌相方面,土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉表層部位隨著熟成時間,其總生菌數皆顯著地增加(p<0.05),而深層部位則分別於熟成2及1週後有下降的趨勢。乾醃鴨胸肉之微球菌數則與總生菌數變化類似。乾醃鴨胸肉表層及深層部位之酵母菌及黴菌菌數皆隨著熟成之進行而有顯著增加(p<0.05),但表層部位則分別於熟成4及2週後下降,而深層部位則皆於8週後顯著下降(p<0.05)。另外,乾醃鴨胸肉表層部位之腸內菌數皆隨著熟成之進行呈現不穩定變化,而在深層部位則可發現土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉分別於熟成8及12週後即無法測得腸內菌。乳酸菌方面,土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之表層部位隨著熟成期之進行顯著增加且分別於熟成8及16週時顯著下降(p<0.05),而深層部位土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成8週後乳酸菌即無法測得,而北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之菌數則維持在3 log CFU/g左右。
游離胺基酸方面,土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之游離胺基酸於熟成4-8週後顯著增加(p<0.05),但熟成16週時則兩者皆有下降的趨勢。
脂肪酸組成方面,隨著熟成之進行,土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉表皮之總脂肪酸於熟成8週後其多元不飽和脂肪酸有下降的趨勢,但肉豆蔻酸及棕櫚油酸則有顯著的增加(p<0.05);而肌肉部位則顯示出多元不飽和脂肪酸有增加的趨勢。北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉表皮及肌肉部位其總脂肪酸變化與土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之肌肉部位變化類似。在游離脂肪酸方面,土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之表皮部位隨著熟成之進行不飽和脂肪酸有下降的趨勢,除了短鏈脂肪酸外,其餘飽和脂肪酸有增加的趨勢;而肌肉部位則顯示出多元不飽和脂肪酸有增加的趨勢(p<0.05),且除了硬脂酸之外,其餘飽和脂肪酸有減少的趨勢。而北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉表皮及肌肉部位變化與土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之肌肉部位者變化類似。
揮發性風味物質方面,無論是生鮮的鴨胸肉或是經過熟成8或16週的乾醃鴨胸肉都以醛類化合物所佔的百分率最高,而此類化合物是乾醃肉製品中重要風味的來源。
黴菌抽出物之毒性試驗方面,經海蝦毒性試驗之結果得知乾醃鴨胸肉表面之黴菌不具毒性。
官能品評方面,品評員對於土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之色澤、口感、柔軟度及總接受性喜好性皆在4分以上,鹹度及風味喜好性則在4分以下,而北京鴨者則除了鹹味喜好性在4分以下外,其餘皆在4分以上。
The purpose of this study was to develop dry cured duck meat according to the procedure of dry cured ham and to investigate the changes of its chemical contents, microbial flora, free amino acid, fatty acid composition, volatile components, toxicity test and sensory properties to evaluate its suitability as raw material for dry cured product .
The results showed that pH value of the external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased(p<0.05) but that of the internal was not significantly change during ripening. Water activity and moisture of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly decreased (p<0.05)during ripening. The moisture of external part of mule dry cured duck meat was significantly higher than that of the internal, but no significantly difference was found between the two parts of Peikin dry cured duck meat The moisture of external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat was significantly lower(p<0.05)than that of internal after ripening 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The nitrosohematin content of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased during ripening (p<0.05). That of external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat were maintained stable after 8 and 12 weeks during ripening, respectively. The salt content of the mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased (p<0.05)with ripening time increasing. The external and internal part of all dry cured duck meats reached stable after 4 weeks during ripening. In the visual color, the mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat showed red color before 4 and 8 weeks during ripening and then they became dark red color at the end of ripening.
In the aspect of microbial flora, the total plate count of the external part of mule and Peikin duck meat was significantly increased during ripening(p<0.05), but that of internal part meat was decreased after 2 and 1 week during ripening, individually. The change of Micrococcaceae count of the products was the same as total plate count. With ripening time increasing, the mold/yeast number of external and internal part of dry cured duck meat was significantly increased (p<0.05)but that of the external and internal part of meat were decreased after 4 and 2 during ripening. The number of enterobacteria count of external part of meat was showed unstable change, and didn’t be found in internal part of mule and Peikin meat after 8 and 12 weeks during ripening. The number of lactic acid bacteria count of external part of mule and Peikin duck meat was significantly increased with ripening time increasing, before 8 and 16 week then the numbers were significantly declined. After 8 week ripening, the number of internal part of mule dry cured meat was not detected. However, the number of Peikin dry cured meat was about 3 log CFU/g.
The free amino acid of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat was significantly increased after 4 and 8 week during ripening(p<0.05)then declined at 16 week ripening. With ripening times increasing, the PUFA of the skin part from mule dry cured duck meat was decreased , myristic acid and palmitic acid was significantly increased(p<0.05)but the PUFA of muscle part was increased. The change of fatty acid for skin and muscle part of Peikin dry cured duck meat was similar to that of mule dry cured meat. In the aspect of free fatty acid , expect of short chain fatty acid, PUFA of skin part from dry cured mule duck meat was decreased, but SFA was increased during ripening. Contrastly, PUFA of muscle part was increased(p<0.05),but SFA was decreased. The change of free fatty acid of dry cured Peikin duck meat was similar to that of muscle of mule meat.
In the volatile component, regardless of fresh or dry cured duck meat, they had the highest aldehyde in all volatile components and these components were important sources for the flavor of dry cured products.
Toxicity in brine shrimp test of dry cured duck meat, the result showed there was no toxicity from mold on the surface of dry cured duck meat.
In the aspect of sensory properties, color, softness, mouth feeling and overall acceptance score of dry cured mule duck meat were above 4 but salty and flavor of the products were unacceptable. Otherwise, except of salty, the others sensory properties of dry cured Peikin duck meat were accepted by the panelists.
頁次
壹、 中文摘要…………………………………………… 1
貳、 前言………………………………………………… 3
參、 文獻檢討…………………………………………… 4
一、 乾醃火腿……………………………………………… 4
(一) 製作流程…………………………………………… 4
(二) 分類………………………………………………… 4
1.產地之不同……………………………………………… 5
2.豬隻品種之不同………………………………………… 6
3.製作方法的不同………………………………………… 6
二、 熟成在乾醃火腿的重要性…………………………… 8
(一) 蛋白質的分解……………………………………… 8
(二) 蛋白之種類及作用……………………………… 9
1.溶體蛋白…………………………………………… 9
2.中性蛋白:依鈣蛋白(calpains)……………………… 10
3.胜…………………………………………………… 10
(三) 影響乾醃火腿中蛋白質分解活性因子………… 11
1.品種……………………………………………………… 11
2.屠宰年齡………………………………………………… 12
3.製作過程中的各種因子………………………………… 12
(四) 熟成期間脂質的分解……………………………… 13
1.脂解的分類…………………………………………… 14
2.氧化作用………………………………………………… 16
三、 乾醃火腿之揮發性風味成分………………………… 18
(一) 非揮發性物質之產生……………………………… 19
(二) 揮發性化合物……………………………………… 19
(三) 揮發性化合物之形成途徑………………………… 20
1.醛類……………………………………………………… 20
2.醇類……………………………………………………… 20
3.酮類……………………………………………………… 21
4.酯類……………………………………………………… 21
5.含硫化合物……………………………………………… 21
6.烯類…………………………………………………… 21
7.含氮化合物……………………………………………… 21
四、 影響乾醃火腿品質之因素…………………………… 22
(一) 原料肉來源………………………………………… 22
(二) 原料肉之品質……………………………………… 22
(三) 製作時間…………………………………………… 22
(四) 製作溫度…………………………………………… 23
(五) 微生物菌相之作用………………………………… 23
肆、 材料與方法………………………………………… 25
一、 試驗材料與製作方法………………………………… 25
(一) 原料………………………………………………… 25
(二) 乾醃步驟…………………………………………… 25
二、 分析項目……………………………………………… 27
(一) 採樣………………………………………………… 27
(二) 微生物……………………………………………… 27
(三) pH值……………………………………………… 28
(四) 水活性……………………………………………… 28
(五) 水分含量…………………………………………… 28
(六) 亞硝基鐵血色素…………………………………… 28
(七) 食鹽含量…………………………………………… 29
(八) 色澤之測定………………………………………… 30
(九) 游離胺基酸含量…………………………………… 30
(十) 脂肪酸及游離脂肪酸組成………………………… 31
(十一) 揮發性風味成分……………………………… 33
(十二) 黴菌抽出物之毒性試驗……………………… 36
(十三) 官能品評……………………………………… 37
三、 統計分析……………………………………………… 37
伍、 結果與討論………………………………………… 38
一、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間pH值之變化……………… 38
二、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間水活性及水分含量之變
化……………………………………………………… 38
三、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間亞硝基鐵血色素之變化…… 41
四、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間食鹽含量之變化…………… 44
五、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間色澤之變化………………… 47
六、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間微生物菌相之變化………… 53
七、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間游離胺基酸含量之變化…… 60
八、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間脂肪酸及游離脂肪酸之變…
化…………………………………………………… 64
九、 乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成期間之揮發性風味物質………… 76
十、 黴菌抽出物之毒性試驗……………………………… 89
十一 官能品評……………………………………………… 89
陸、 結論………………………………………………… 96
柒、 參考文獻…………………………………………… 97
捌、 英文摘要…………………………………………… 113
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