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研究生:黃鏗宇
研究生(外文):Keng-Yu Huang
論文名稱:不同零售包裝及浸泡處理對台灣土雞儲藏期間肉質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects on various retail packages in dipping treatment on meat quality of Taiwan country chicken during chilled storage
指導教授:林亮全
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chuan Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:台灣土雞包裝方式乳酸三聚磷酸鈉浸泡處理
外文關鍵詞:Taiwan country chickenpackagelactic acidsodium tripolyphosphatedipping treatment
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中文摘要
實驗旨在研究不同包裝型態(真空包裝、收縮膜包裝和PE袋包裝)及浸泡處理(3 ﹪乳酸和0.5 ﹪三聚磷酸鈉)對台灣土雞冷藏儲藏期間肉質之影響。
其測定項目有:色澤(L.a.b.)、失重率、保水性、pH值、總生菌數、TBA值、VBN值、截切值、蒸煮失重、滲出液、滲出液中蛋白質濃度及其SDS-PAGE電氣泳動。
結果如下:色澤方面,不論何種浸泡處理,台灣土雞以真空收縮包裝者皆呈現較低的L值及較高的a值和b值(p<0.05),乳酸浸泡處理則較其他處理組有較低之L值及較高的a值和b值。
3 ﹪乳酸/真空收縮包裝或3 ﹪乳酸/真空包裝有較低pH值、總生菌數和VBN值,其也具有較高之蒸煮失重和截切值(p<0.05)。在失重率方面。乳酸浸泡處理有顯著較高的失重率(p<0.05)。三聚磷酸鈉浸泡之處理則有最低之失重率,在整個儲藏期間內也沒有顯著之失重變化(p>0.05)。不同包裝方面,除了在第0天真空收縮包裝顯著較高之外(p<0.05),真空收縮包裝和真空包裝在整個儲藏期間並沒有太大的差異。
在保水性方面,胸肉於第0天時,乳酸浸泡之三種包裝處理及控制組之真空收縮包裝有較差之保水性(p<0.05),而三聚磷酸鈉及控制組之包裝有較高的保水性。
TBA值方面,胸肉在儲藏第6天時,PE袋包裝具有較高的TBA值,真空包裝及真空收縮包裝並無顯著差異(p>0.05)。在浸泡處理之比較方面,乳酸浸泡和三聚磷酸鈉處理之間並無差異,在腿肉部分,則與胸肉有相同之趨勢,不過其TBA值略高於胸肉。
滲出液量方面,不同浸泡處理比較以三聚磷酸鈉浸泡組最高(p<0.05)。在包裝的比較方面,PE袋包裝之滲出液量最少。滲出液中之蛋白質濃度則是PE袋包裝在三聚磷酸鈉浸泡後有最低的蛋白質濃度(p<0.05),乳酸浸泡及控制組則較高。PE袋包裝於三聚磷酸鈉浸泡後雖然有較低的蛋白質濃度,但其滲出液量仍是最多,故其蛋白質總量顯著高於乳酸浸泡或控制組之PE袋包裝(p<0.05)。
在滲出液之SDS-PAGE電氣泳動方面,三聚磷酸鈉浸泡之66及45Kda成分有較多的趨勢,這與三聚磷酸鈉有較高滲出液有關;乳酸浸泡則有較多的27及15Kda濃度;在不同包裝比較方面,真空收縮包裝在66、45、29、27及15Kda成分都有較多之蛋白質濃度。
從以上結果得之,真空收縮包裝配合3 ﹪乳酸浸泡有最佳之儲藏性,但真空收縮包裝之材質單價較高,因此本試驗另外以真空包裝配合3 ﹪乳酸浸泡,且經過熱縮處理,與3 ﹪乳酸浸泡/真空收縮包裝作一儲藏性之比較。結果如下:3 ﹪乳酸/真空包裝有較低之失重率,在儲藏12天後其有較高之總生菌數及VBN值(p<0.05),TBA值則以3 ﹪乳酸/真空收縮包裝顯著較低(p<0.05);pH值方面兩者則沒有顯著差異(p>0.05)。
The purpose of this study was to find out the effect on various retail packages(vacuum package, vacuum-shrink package and PE package) in dipping treatments [3﹪lactic acid(LA) and 0.5﹪sodium tripolyphosphate(STPP)] on the meat quality of Taiwan country chicken during chilled storage.
Items as:color(L.a.b.), weight loss, WHC, pH value, TPC, TBA value, VBN value, shear value, cooking loss, drip loss, protein concentration and SDS-PAGE electrophoretogram of drip were determined in this experiment.
The results were as follows:In color, regardless of dipping treatments , vacuum-shrink package of Taiwan country chicken had lower L value and higher a, b value significant(p<0.05). LA dipping treatment had lower L value and higher a, b value than other treatments.
3﹪LA/vacuum-shrink package treatment or 3﹪LA/vacuum package treatment had lower pH value, TPC and VBN value, but they had have higher cooking loss and shear value(p<0.05).In weight loss, LA dipping treatment had significant higher weight loss(p<0.05).STPP dipping treatment had the lowest weight loss and did not have significant changes of weight loss during overall storage period. In various package, besides vacuum-shrink package was significantly higher at 0 day(p<0.05). Between vacuum-shrink package treatment and vacuum package treatment there were no significant differences during storage periods(p>0.05). In WHC, at 0 day, LA dipping treatments had less WHC(p<0.05) but STPP treatment had higher WHC(p<0.05).In control, only vacuum-shrink package treatment had less WHC.
In TBA value, regardless of breast or thigh meat, PE packages had higher TBA value at 6 day. Between vacuum packages and vacuum-shrink packages, there were no significant differences(p>0.05).Comparing dipping treatment, LA or STPP dipping treatment had no significant different(p>0.05). Thigh had slightly higher TBA value than breast.
In drip loss, comparing difference dipping treatments, STPP dipping treatments were the highest(p<0.05). Comparing different packages, PE package treatments were the lowest(p<0.05). In protein concentration of drip, PE package in STPP dipping treatment had lower protein concentration than LA dipping or control(p<0.05).In drip protein quantity, PE package in STPP dipping treatment had lower protein concentration, but it had more drip loss. Therefore, it still had higher protein quantity than LA dipping or control significant(p<0.05).
In SDS-PAGE electrophoretogram, the 66Kda and 45Kda concentration of STPP dipping treatments had a higher trend. And this was relative to their higher drip loss. LA dipping treatments had a higher 27Kda and 15Kda concentration. In different packages, vacuum-shrink package had higher 66Kda, 45Kda, 29Kda, 27Kda and 15Kda concentration.
From above results, it was found that the 3﹪LA/vacuum-shrink package had the best storage ability, but material of vacuum-shrink package cost highest. Therefore, the experiment of the study was addition to heat 3﹪LA/vacuum package in 90℃ for 5sec that was compared with 3﹪LA/vacuum-shrink package on storage ability.
The results were as follows:3﹪LA/vacuum package had lower weight loss. After stored for 12 days, 3﹪LA/vacuum package had significant higher TPC and VBN value(p<0.05). In TBA value, 3﹪LA/vacuum-shrink package was significantly lower than 3﹪LA/vacuum package(p<0.05). In pH value, between both treatments, there were no significant differences.(p>0.05).
目錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………1
壹、前言…………………………………………………………………3
貳、文獻檢討……………………………………………………………5
一、台灣土雞之介紹及消費現況…………………………………5
二、台灣土雞之肉質特色…………………………………………5
三、食品包裝技術的演變…………………………………………7
四、包裝的目的……………………………………………………7
五、包裝技術………………………………………………………8
六、家畜禽肉品之包裝技術……………………………………..12
七、有機酸之特性………………………………………………..15
八、作用機制……………………………………………………..15
九、抑菌效果……………………………………………………..17
十、應用於不同家畜禽肉製品之效果…………………………..18
十一、有機酸處理對食肉物理及風味之影響……………………21
十二、乳酸鹽之作用……………………………………………..22
十三、有機酸應用方式…………………………………………..23
十四、磷酸鹽之特性……………………………………………..24
十五、磷酸鹽的種類及使用……………………………………..24
十六、磷酸鹽對於家畜禽產品的作用效果……………………..27
十七、對食肉物理性及風味之影響……………………………..28
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………..30
一、試驗材料……………………………………………………..30
二、試驗方法……………………………………………………..32
1.色澤變化…………………………………………………...32
2.pH值……………………………………………………….32
3.保水性……………………………………………………...32
4.總生菌數…………………………………………………...33
5.揮發性鹽基態氮…………………………………………...33
6.失重率……………………………………………………...34
7.2-硫巴比妥酸值……………………………………………34
8.截切值之變化……………………………………………...35
9.蒸煮失重…………………………………………………...35
10.滲出液中蛋白質之電氣泳動…………………………….36
11.真空包裝以真空收縮包裝方式處理與真空收縮包裝儲藏性之比較…………………………………………………..42
12.統計分析………………………………………………….42
肆、結果與討論………………………………………………………..43
一、色澤變化……………………………………………………..43
二、pH值…………………………………………………………52
三、失重率………………………………………………………..55
四、保水性………………………………………………………..57
五、總生菌數……………………………………………………..60
六、揮發性鹽基態氮……………………………………………..63
七、2-硫巴比妥酸值……………………………………………...66
八、截切值………………………………………………………..69
九、蒸煮失重……………………………………………………..72
十、滲出液蛋白質之電氣泳動…………………………………..75
1.滲出液量之變化…………………………………………...75
2.滲出液之蛋白質濃度……………………………………...75
3.滲出液之蛋白質總量……………………………………...77
4.滲出液中蛋白質之電氣泳動……………………………...77
十一、真空包裝以真空收縮包裝方式處理與真空收縮包裝儲藏性之比較………………………………………………...89
1.pH值……………………………………………………….89
2.失重率……………………………………………………...89
3.總生菌數…………………………………………………...89
4.揮發性鹽基態氮…………………………………………...93
5.2-硫巴比妥酸值……………………………………………93
伍、結論………………………………………………………………..96
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………………..97
柒、英文摘要………………………………………………………….109
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