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研究生:陳維泰
論文名稱:不同動物黑色素萃取物的物理化學及功能特性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study on the physical, chemical and functional properties of melanin extracted from various species of animals
指導教授:林亮全
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:黑色素抗氧化清除自由基光譜
外文關鍵詞:melanin
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本研究目的在探討由烏骨雞雞冠(silky comb, SC)、烏骨雞雞皮(silky skin, SS)、烏賊墨囊(sepia ink sac, SE)和章魚墨囊黑色素(octopus ink sac, OC)中萃取黑色素的可行性,並與化學合成黑色素(synthetic melanin, SY-melanin)做物理和化學特性之比較。此外,針對黑色素萃取物的抑菌性、光保護、抗氧化及其應用於食品的可能性,檢測黑色素萃取物對生物體分子的氧化傷害之抗氧化性和抗突變性做一安全上之評估。
結果顯示,黑色萃取物以烏賊墨囊的萃取率最高;不同動物黑色素萃取物雖有不同的元素組成和未成對電子含量,但具有相同的溶解特性及吸收光能力。
黑色素萃取物之抑菌性、光保護及抗氧化特性方面:所有黑色素萃取物對於Bacillus cereus和Pseudomonas fluorescens皆有抑菌環的產生,且隨著黑色素萃取物添加量的提高而有較強的抑菌能力。對於Escherichia coli只有SC-melanin有抑制效果,而Staphylococcus aureus只有SS-melanin和SC-melanin可抑制。黑色素萃取物添加於亞麻油酸會隨著UV照射時間的增長而顯著減少過氧化物形成量 (p<0.05),其中以OC-melanin的效果顯著(p<0.05)較佳。黑色素萃取物添加於Lactobacillus acidophilus,Bifidobacterium bifidum 及L. bulgaricus 中經紫外線照射15分鐘後,對菌數存活率有顯著(p<0.05)增加的情形發生。L. acidophilus的部份,以SC-melanin和SE-melanin的光保護能力較佳(p<0.05);B. bifidum的部份,以SE-melanin和OC-melanin有較好的光保護能力(p<0.05);而L. bulgaricus的部份以SY-melanin的光保護能力最佳(p<0.05)。黑色素萃取物對於活性氧(超氧陰離子)與自由基(DPPH自由基和氫氧自由基)有清除效應,且會隨著添加黑色素濃度的增加而提升其效果。故可由此推斷黑色素萃取物之抗氧化性並不是單獨來自於某種機制,而是由許多特性一起作用的結果。
黑色素萃取物對生物體分子的氧化傷害之抗氧化性及抗突變性方面:黑色素萃取物可顯著(p<0.05)抑制費頓效應所誘導的去氧核糖氧化傷害,抑制效果以SS-melanin最佳。由8-OH-dG的生成量可判定DNA鹽基受到氧化破壞之情形,抗壞血酸的添加會使對照組增加158.59%的8-OH-dG量,而添加黑色素萃取物皆會顯著(p<0.05)抑制8-OH-dG的生成,其中以SC-melanin效果最佳。抗致突變性試驗中,黑色素萃取物的添加對Salmonella typhimurium TA 98和TA 100並不具有毒性,且不會對Salmo. typhimurium TA 98和TA 100造成突變,而有顯著(p<0.05)的抗突變性;若用直接致突變劑4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO)作為黑色素萃取物的測試致突變劑,則黑色素萃取物不會增加TA 98回復突變菌落數,且對NQNO之致突變性具有抑制效果,在TA 98系統中抗致突變能力最佳的是SC-melanin和SS-melanin。在TA 100系統中,黑色素萃取物的抗致突變能力最佳的是OC-melanin。
壹、中文摘要-------------------------------------------------001
貳、文獻檢討-------------------------------------------------003
一、黑色素概論-----------------------------------------------003
二、黑色素生成之細胞學---------------------------------------004
三、黑色素之生物合成-----------------------------------------008
四、天然和合成黑色素-----------------------------------------010
五、黑色素物理化學特性---------------------------------------011
六、酪胺酸與黑色素之關係-----------------------------------013
七、自由基及活性氧-------------------------------------------018
八、自由基對生理功能之影響-----------------------------------018
九、天然的抗氧化物之發展-------------------------------------021
十、天然抗氧化物對生物體的關係-------------------------------023
十一、烏骨雞之營養價值---------------------------------------027
參、不同動物黑色素萃取物之物理化學特性
一、摘要-----------------------------------------------------032
二、前言-----------------------------------------------------033
三、材料與方法-----------------------------------------------034
四、結果與討論
(一)、黑色素萃取率-------------------------------------------039
(二)、黑色素萃取物外觀---------------------------------------039
(三)、黑色素萃取物之元素組成---------------------------------042
(四)、黑色素萃取物之物理特性---------------------------------042
(五)、烏骨雞黑色素含量與黑度之相關性-------------------------045
(六)、黑色素萃取物之未成對電子含量---------------------------045
(七)、黑色素萃取物之IR光譜-----------------------------------048
(八)、黑色素萃取物之UV-VIS光譜-------------------------------049
肆、不同動物黑色素萃取物之抑菌性及光保護特性
一、摘要-----------------------------------------------------054
二、前言-----------------------------------------------------055
三、材料與方法-----------------------------------------------056
四、結果與討論
(一)、黑色素萃取物抑菌性之評估-------------------------------062
(二)、黑色素萃取物光保護特性之探討
1.黑色素萃取物對紫外線誘發亞麻油酸過氧化作用之影響-----------066
2.黑色素萃取物對紫外線照射乳酸菌數之影響---------------------068
(三)、黑色素萃取物抗氧化性之測定
1. 清除DPPH自由基--------------------------------------------073
2. 清除超氧陰離子--------------------------------------------077
3. 清除氫氧自由基--------------------------------------------081
伍、不同動物黑色素萃取物對生物體分子的氧化傷害之抗氧化性及其抗致突變性
一、摘要-----------------------------------------------------085
二、前言-----------------------------------------------------086
三、材料與方法-----------------------------------------------087
四、結果與討論
(一)、黑色素萃取物對生物體分子氧化傷害之抗氧化性
1.對去氧核糖氧化傷害之影響-----------------------------------093
2.對2’-deoxyguanosine (dG)氧化成8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine(8-OH-dG)之影響-------------------------------------------------094
(二)、黑色素萃取物之抗突變性
1.對Salmo. typhimurium TA 98和TA 100菌株的毒性試驗-----------098
2.對Salmo. typhimurium TA 98和TA 100菌株的突變性試驗---------099
3.對Salmo. typhimurium TA 98和TA 100菌株的抗致突變性試驗-----098
陸、結論-----------------------------------------------------108
柒、參考文獻-------------------------------------------------109
捌、英文摘要-------------------------------------------------120
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