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研究生:王效天
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Tien Wang
論文名稱:手術去勢閹雞和雞胚時期注射雌二醇對台灣土雞公雞生長後期至性成熟後日間作息,鬥爭行為,生長成績屠體性狀及官能品評之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Surgical Caponization and Administration of Estradiol to Chicken Embryos on Daily Activity, Agonistic Behavior, Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Sensory Evaluation of Males Taiwan Country Chickens
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Pai Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:閹雞行為雌二醇
外文關鍵詞:caponbehaviourestradiol
相關次數:
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本試驗採用國立中興大學育成之二品系雜交土雞─B ×L2品系之公雞作為試驗雞隻,以研究外科手術閹雞與胚時期注射雌二醇對於公雞生長、行為與屠體性狀的影響。試驗分組為8週齡外科手術去勢的閹雞(capon)組和雞胚0日齡時期注射雌二醇(estradiol)的E2組,以及未處理的對照組。在雞隻11至33週齡進行生長與行為性狀的調查,並於14與33週齡時測定其胸肉與腿肉的剪切值和進行官能品評。試驗結果如下:
在採食時間方面, E2組(19.79%)顯著地高於對照組(16.76%)與閹雞組(11.45%)。在梳洗時間方面,閹雞組(22.31%)顯著地高於E2組(15.25%)與對照組(11.94%)。在蹲伏休息時間方面,閹雞組(17.10%)顯著地高於E2組(13.15%)與對照組(9.56%)。在站立和走動時間方面,閹雞組(45.69%)和E2組(48.21%)顯著地低於對照組(58.32%)。
鬥爭行為觀察分成12~16、19~23與31~35週齡等三階段進行,總計每欄18小時的鬥爭行為觀察發現,互鬥總共發生頻率方面,E2組(48次)和閹雞組(65次)顯著地低於對照組(296次)。在平均攻擊行為頻率方面(次數/小時/隻),閹雞組(0.956)和E2組(2.233)均顯著地低於對照組(3.246)。
在生長性狀方面,10~16週齡期間的飼料轉換率,E2組和閹雞組顯著地較對照組佳。20週齡後的體重及飼料轉換率,E2組和閹雞組顯著地較對照組佳。閹雞組雞冠面積一直都很明顯地小於E2組和對照組。在14和16週齡時,閹雞組的羽毛狀況最差,對照組次之,E2組最佳。在24和32週齡時,E2組和閹雞組都有相當良好狀況的羽毛,而極顯著地較對照組為佳。在14週齡時,E2組與閹雞組的腿肉比例和腿肉重顯著比對照組低,但到了33週齡時,閹雞組的胸肉比例和胸肉重顯著比E2組及對照組高,而且不論是閹雞組或E2組,其腿肉重與總屠體重量都顯著地高於對照組。
E2組和閹雞組在14週齡的腿肉剪切值顯著的低於對照組。在33週齡時,閹雞組的胸肉剪切值最高,E2組最低,對照組則介於兩者之間;在腿肉的剪切值方面,閹雞組的剪切值卻是最低,對照組最高,E2組則介於兩者之間。
品評成績方面,在14週齡時,胸肉總可接受性評分以E2組為最高,對照組次之,閹雞組最低。腿肉嫩度評分以E2組為最高,閹雞組次之,對照組最低。在33週齡,各處理組的風味、嫩度、多汁性及總接受性都無顯著差異,唯獨在胸肉色澤方面,閹雞組的評分顯著地高於E2組和對照組。
Effects of Surgical Caponization and Administration of Estradiol to Chicken Embryos on Daily Activity, Agonistic Behavior, Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Sensory Evaluation of Males Taiwan Country Chickens
Summary
The Taiwan Country Chicken B×L2 strain, established at the National Chung-Hsing University, were used to study the effects of surgical caponization and administration of estradiol to embryo on the behavioral, growth and carcass traits of male chickens. The three experimental groups were, the capon group, surgically caponized at 8 weeks of age, the E2 group, administrated with estradiol before incubation, and the intact control group. The chicken’s growth and behavioral traits were measured from 11 to 33 weeks of age, and the shear value and sensory evaluation scores of breast and leg meats were tested at 14 and 33 weeks of age. Experimental results are as follows:
For feeding time, the E2 group (19.79%) was significantly higher than the control (16.76%) and the capon group (11.45%). For grooming time, the capon group (22.31%) was significantly higher than the E2 (15.25%) and the control groups (11.94%). For crouching time, the capon group (17.10%) was significantly higher than the E2 (13.15%) and the control group (9.56%). For standing and walking time, the capon group (45.69%) and the E2 group (48.21%) were significantly higher than the control group (58.32%).
Agonistic behaviors were observed at 12~16, 19~23, and 31~35 weeks of age periods. Totally, every pen was observed for 18 hours. It was found that the total frequency of fighting in the E2 (48 times) and the capon group (65 times) were significantly lower than that of the control (296 times). Means of aggressive acts (acts/hour/bird) of the capon (0.956) and the E2 group (2.233) were significantly lower than that of the control (3.246).
For the growth performance, the feed conversion ratio of the E2 group and the capon group were significantly better than the control from 10 to 16 weeks of age, and so was the body weight after 20 weeks of age. The comb size of the capon group was always significantly smaller than that of the E2 and the control group. At 14 and 16 weeks of age, the capon group had the worst feather score, the control had the next and the E2 had the best score. At 24 and 32 weeks of age, both the E2 and the capon group maintained very good condition of feather covering, and their feather scores were highly significantly better than that of the control. At 14 weeks of age, the leg weight and its ratio to carcass weight of the E2 and the capon group were significantly lower than those of the control. At 34 weeks of age, the breast weight and its ratio to carcass weight of the capon group were significantly higher than those of the E2 and the control group.
At 14 weeks of age, the shear value of leg meat of the E2 and the capon group were significantly lower than that of the control. At 33 weeks of age, the shear value of breast meat of the capon was the highest, and that of the E2 was the lowest; for the leg meat, the capon group had the lowest shear value, and the control had the highest value.
The sensory evaluation at 14 weeks of age revealed that, for the breast meat, the E2 group had the highest acceptability score, the control had the next and the capon had the lowest; for the leg meat, the E2 group had the highest tenderness score, the capon group had the next and the control had the lowest. The sensory evaluation at 33 weeks of age found no significant difference among groups for any of flavor, tenderness, juiciness and acceptability scores, except for the color scores of breast meat of the capon group were significantly higher than that of the E2 and the control group.
目 錄
頁次
壹、 中文摘要------------------------------------------- 1
貳、 前言----------------------------------------------- 3
參、 文獻檢討------------------------------------------- 5
一、台灣地區主要肉用雞種現況------------------------ 5
二、台灣土雞之研究---------------------------------- 6
三、目前去勢方法------------------------------------ 12
四、台灣的閹雞-------------------------------------- 13
(一)台灣地區閹雞市場與飼養概況----------------- 14
(二)閹雞的方法--------------------------------- 15
(三)去勢對雞之影響----------------------------- 16
(四)閹雞飼養管理------------------------------- 17
五、雌二醇與雞之性別分化---------------------------- 21
(一)禽類性別的分化----------------------------- 21
(二)雌二醇的生物合成--------------------------- 21
(三)外源性雌二醇對雞之影響--------------------- 23
六 、雞隻行為模式----------------------------------- 25
(一)日間作息----------------------------------- 27
(二)鬥爭行為----------------------------------- 29
(三)啄序與社會地位----------------------------- 32
七、雞肉的物理特性---------------------------------- 33
(一)食肉物理特性與官能品評之定義--------------- 33
(二)剪切力與物理性分析之關係------------------- 34
(三)雞肉的物理特性與剪切力--------------------- 34
肆、材料與方法------------------------------------------ 36
一、試驗雞隻---------------------------------------- 36
二、試驗處理---------------------------------------- 36
(一)雌二醇-胡麻油溶液配製---------------------- 36
頁次
(二)胚注射雌醇步驟----------------------------- 36
三、試驗雞舍---------------------------------------- 37
四、飼養管理---------------------------------------- 37
五、行為觀察---------------------------------------- 38
(一)日間作息----------------------------------- 38
(二)鬥爭行為----------------------------------- 40
六、生長性狀的測量---------------------------------- 41
(一)體重及飼料轉換率--------------------------- 41
(二)雞冠面積----------------------------------- 41
(三)羽毛評分----------------------------------- 42
(四)屠體性狀----------------------------------- 42
七、剪切值分析-------------------------------------- 43
八、官能品評---------------------------------------- 45
九、統計分析---------------------------------------- 45
(一)日間作息------------------------------------ 45
(二)鬥爭行為----------------------------------- 47
伍、結果與討論------------------------------------------ 50
一、日間作息---------------------------------------- 50
(一)試驗處理、日間時段與飼養週齡的影響---------- 50
(二)不同週齡階段各處理雞隻之日間作息----------- 52
二、鬥爭行為---------------------------------------- 55
三、經濟性狀---------------------------------------- 58
(一)體重與體增重------------------------------- 58
(二)採食量與飼料轉換率------------------------- 60
(三)雞冠面積----------------------------------- 61
(四)羽毛傷害----------------------------------- 62
(五)屠體性狀----------------------------------- 63
四、雞肉剪切值測定與官能品評------------------------ 65
頁次
(一)剪切值------------------------------------- 65
(二)官能品評----------------------------------- 66
陸、結論------------------------------------------------ 70
柒、參考文獻-------------------------------------------- 73
捌、英文摘要-------------------------------------------- 88
柒、參考文獻
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