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研究生:趙清賢
研究生(外文):Ching-Hsien Chao
論文名稱:台灣土雞對雙向選拔血清γ球蛋白(%)的反應
論文名稱(外文):Response to Divergent Selection for Serum g-globulin Percentage in Taiwan Country Chicken
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Pai Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:台灣土雞血清 r 球蛋白%受精率雙向選拔
外文關鍵詞:Taiwan Country Chickenserum r globulin percentagefertilitydivergent selection
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摘 要
台灣市場需要的土雞必須具有接近性成熟的外觀,且由於其生長速率慢,一般飼養至上市出售的時間約為商業白肉雞的兩倍以上。在加入世界貿易組織以後,台灣土雞的生產事業將面臨價格上極大的挑戰,唯有加強提高生產效率以降低成本、提升產品特色及品質、與注重產品的安全衛生,才能與進口的肉雞競爭。台灣的種用土雞一般採籠飼,利用人工授精配種方式來繁殖後代,種雞業者常抱怨在實行多次人工授精後,發生受精率迅速衰退的情形。改善種雞群的生殖性能,將可降低台灣土雞的生產成本。許多報告顯示母雞的免疫能力可能是造成受精率衰退的因素之一。因此,本研究之目的為(一)調查研究台灣土雞生殖性能與免疫間的關係;(二)尋找與受精率有高遺傳相關的可遺傳性狀,進行雙向選拔檢測是否可以間接改變生殖性能。首先調查估計台灣土雞生殖性能與免疫的遺傳參數,並研究這些性狀之間的關係。調查結果顯示:1)台灣土雞血清γ球蛋白(%)遺傳率約在0.3至0.4間; 2)γ球蛋白(%)與受精率有負的遺傳相關;並且3)來自具高(低)血清γ球蛋白(%)親代的小母雞也有較高(低)γ球蛋白(%),但有較差(佳)的受精率。這些結果提示可能可由選拔低血清γ球蛋白(%)來增進台灣土雞的生殖性能。因此,對34週齡L2品系土雞的血清γ球蛋白(%)進行高與低選拔。在連續三世代選拔後,檢測生殖與免疫性狀在高與低兩土雞品系(H與L品系)間的差異。結果發現選拔可以有效改變血清γ球蛋白(%)。在各選拔世代,H品系的血清γ球蛋白(%)皆顯著高於L品系。三世代實際選拔反應所計算的實際遺傳率在0.225 ~ 0.433間。以親子迴歸所估得的遺傳率在H與L品系分別為0.342與0.451。且H品系的血清總蛋白質與球蛋白濃度、對新城雞病疫苗與綿羊紅血球的抗體反應也顯著高於L品系。在第一與二選拔世代H品系的受精率顯著低於L品系,但在第三選拔世代受精率在兩品系間則無顯著差異。第三選拔世代的L品系母雞在8與16週齡的體重顯著高於H品系。由以上結果顯示,在L2品系土雞血清γ球蛋白(%)受累加性基因影響,且此性狀與受精率有負的遺傳相關。選拔血清γ球蛋白(%)不僅改變此選拔性狀,也間接改變受精率、血液成分(血清總蛋白質與球蛋白濃度)與體液免疫(對新城雞病疫苗與綿羊紅血球的抗體反應)。
ABSTRACT
Since the market demands the Taiwan Country chicken have a sexually matured appearance, and due to the relatively slow growth rate, the Taiwan Country chicken takes more than double the length of rearing time for marketing as compared with commercial broilers. After joins the World Trade Organization, the industry of Taiwan Country chicken will face a great challenge on price. Only by improving production efficiency, promoting product quality and maintaining product safety and hygiene, it could then compete with the imported broiler. Generally, the breeder stocks are kept in wire-floored cages and reproduce by artificial insemination. Breeders of the Taiwan Country chicken often complain about a rapid decline of fertility after frequent artificial insemination. Improvement of reproductive performances in breeder stock could reduce the production cost of Taiwan Country chicken. Many reports have shown that the immunocompetence of female chicken may be one of the factors that decline the fertility. Therefore, the purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the relationship between reproductive performance and immunity in the Taiwan Country chicken; 2) to search for a heritable trait that had genetic correlation with fertility, then conduct a divergent selection for this trait to indirectly improve reproductive performance. The initial experiment was to estimate genetic parameters of reproductive performance and immunity, and to survey the relationship between these traits in the Taiwan Country chicken. Survey results indicated that: 1) serum g-globulin (%) in the Taiwan Country chicken is heritable with an estimate around 0.3 to 0.4; 2) the serum g-globulin (%) is genetically correlated with fertility; moreover, 3) pullets from the parents with high (or low) g-globulin (%) also had high (or low) g-globulin (%), but with low (or high) fertility. These results imply that reproductive performance of the Taiwan Country chicken might be improved by selection for low serum g-globulin (%). Therefore, a selection program of L2 strain chicken for high (H) and low (L) serum g-globulin (%) at 34 wk of age was carried out. After three successive generations of selection, the H and L lines were tested for the differences of their reproductive and immunological traits. Selection was effective in changing the serum g-globulin (%). The H line had significantly higher serum g-globulin (%) than that of L line over the course of selection. Realized heritabilities for serum g-globulin (%) ranged from 0.225 to 0.433 in the three successive generations. The heritabilities of serum g-globulin (%) estimated from parent-offspring regression were 0.342 and 0.451 for the H and L lines, respectively. The H line also had significantly higher serum total protein and globulin concentrations, and produced significantly higher antibody responses to both Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) than those of the L line. The H line had significantly lower fertility than the L line in the first and second selection generations, but it was not significant in the third selection generation. The body weight was significantly heavier in the L line than in the H line at both 8 and 16 wk of age in the third selection generation. From these results, it is suggested that serum g-globulin (%) of L2 strain chicken is affected by additive genes and this trait is negative genetically correlated with fertility. Selection of Taiwan Country chickens for serum g-globulin (%) not only change the selected trait but also indirectly change fertility, the blood components (serum total protein and globulin), and the humoral immunity (antibody responses to NDV and SRBC)。
封面
中文摘要
英文摘要
緒言
第一章 文獻檢討
一、雌禽生殖系統
二、雌禽輸卵管內精子的儲存
三、雌禽輸卵管內精子的選擇
四、雌禽輸卵管內精子的釋出
五、影響雌禽輸卵管內精子儲存的因素
六、母禽在輸卵管內的區域性免疫系統
七、血清蛋白質
八、家禽遺傳控制的免疫反應
第二章 台灣土雞L2品系之生殖成績與免疫性狀的關係
摘要
緒言
材料與方法
結果與討論
第三章 台灣土雞L2品系血清γ球蛋白(%)與受精率的關係
摘要
緒言
材料與方法
結果與討論
第四章 台灣土雞L2品系三世代雙向選拔血清γ球蛋白(%)的反應…53
摘要
緒言
材料與方法
結果與討論
結論
參考文獻
附錄 (計算遺傳率與遺傳相關的SAS程式)
論文發表
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