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研究生:鄭清森
研究生(外文):Ching-Shen Cheng
論文名稱:泌乳母豬蛋白質營養於繁殖模式之驗證與仔豬生長模式之建立
論文名稱(外文):The validation of reproductive model on protein nutrition of lactating sows and establishment of piglet growth model
指導教授:許振忠許振忠引用關係顏宏達顏宏達引用關係阮喜文阮喜文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Chung HsuHoung-Ta YenShii-Wen Roan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:蛋白質離胺酸泌乳母豬仔豬性能季節模式
外文關鍵詞:Dietary proteinLysineLactating sowsPigletPerformanceSeasonModel
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本研究總計採用158頭母豬,共分娩263胎,分為五個試驗,探討母豬泌乳期飼料中蛋白質和離胺酸含量對其繁殖和仔豬生長性能之影響,並建立哺乳仔豬生長模式與驗證泌乳母豬蛋白質營養於繁殖模擬模式之反應。
試驗一利用73頭約克夏母豬(24頭初產和49頭二或三產次母豬)依其產次逢機分配於三種蛋白質含量處理組。試驗飼料以玉米、大豆粕及麩皮調整用量,使其蛋白質含量為12.8、14.8和16.8 %以及離胺酸分析值分別為0.59、0.74和0.89 %。母豬由分娩後至28天離乳期間試驗飼料任食。試驗結果顯示,各種測定項目均無母豬產次和飼料蛋白質間之交互作用。飼料蛋白質含量在12.8至16.8 %並未顯著影響母豬飼料採食量、體重和背脂變化,但產次則極顯著影響(P<0.01)上述測定項目。飼料蛋白質含量增加有提高窩增重和仔豬日增重之趨勢,並顯著(P<0.05)影響下一產次之活仔豬數。母豬離乳至再配種間距均不受蛋白質含量之影響。
試驗二和試驗三為探討泌乳期間飼料蛋白質含量和添加離胺酸對母豬和仔豬性能之影響。採用36頭二品種(LY)雜交初產母豬(試驗二),持續三個產次的試驗,試驗三包括二產次母豬33頭和三產次母豬29頭。懷孕期母豬每日餵給以玉米、大豆粕和麩皮為主之飼料2 kg,飼料含蛋白質13 %和消化能14.1 MJ/kg。分娩後初產次母豬逢機分配於三種飼料處理組中,二產次和三產次母豬餵給之飼料為延續初產次母豬飼料之處理。28天泌乳期間採任食。三種泌乳期飼料是以玉米、大豆粕和6 %麩皮為主要原料所調配,(1)含蛋白質15 %和離胺酸0.75 %,(2)含蛋白質13 %和離胺酸0.75 % (其中0.15 %來自合成離胺酸的補充),(3)含蛋白質13 %和離胺酸0.60 %。三種飼料之消化能均為14.1 MJ/kg。試驗結果顯示,初產母豬餵飼含13 %蛋白質有添加0.15 %離胺酸之飼料無法避免母豬泌乳期體重和背脂之損失,但對其仔豬增重有提高至與含15 %蛋白質飼料相似的效果。經產泌乳母豬持續二、三產次餵飼13 %蛋白質飼料,雖然添加0.15 %離胺酸仍然不能避免經產母豬泌乳期體重之損失,而對於其仔豬增重雖無顯著性差異,仍無法達到含15 %蛋白質飼料的效果。
試驗四以49頭雜交母豬(涼季分娩43胎,熱季分娩49胎)逢機分配於兩種飼料處理中餵飼達28天泌乳期,探討涼熱兩季飼料添加離胺酸對泌乳母豬和其仔豬之影響。兩種飼料採用玉米-大豆粕和6 %麩皮含有15 %粗蛋白質,未添加或添加0.20 %離胺酸,離胺酸含量分別為0.75和0.95 %。飼料和飲水任食。結果顯示,季節和飼料離胺酸添加無交互作用存在。飼料添加離胺酸比未添加者仔豬有較佳(P<0.05)之離乳體重(7.11和6.46 kg)和日增重(0.200和0.180 kg)。當劃分季節時,與涼季比較,熱季飼養哺乳母豬有較低的飼料採食量(3.78和6.11 kg, P<0.01),較高的泌乳期體重損失(19.81和9.73 kg, P<0.01)和背脂損失(0.233和0.064 cm, P<0.01),較長的再發情間距(9.32和6.21天,P<0.05),較低的窩增重(42.13和52.90 kg, P<0.01)與仔豬日增重(0.173和0.211 kg, P<0.01),及較高的教槽料採食量(3.00和1.62 kg/胎, P<0.01)。結果顯示,泌乳母豬飼料含蛋白質15 %添加離胺酸0.20 %,並不能改善因熱季受損之泌乳母豬和其仔豬的性能。
試驗五為以試驗二和試驗三的資料為基礎,探討不同產次母豬所產仔豬於哺乳期間之體重變化,藉以建立哺乳仔豬體重生長模式與驗證泌乳母豬蛋白質營養於繁殖模擬模式之反應。利用36頭初產母豬,連續飼養三產次(二產次母豬為33頭和三產次母豬為29頭)。結果顯示初產母豬之哺乳仔豬各週體重(kg)生長模式以1.448+1.263×週齡-0.117×窩仔豬數+0.0055×母豬開始體重(kg)最佳,其R2為0.91 (P<0.01)。經產母豬之哺乳仔豬各週體重(kg)生長模式則以1.668+1.322×週齡-0.122×窩仔豬數+0.2244×泌乳母豬第一週隻日採食量(kg)最佳,其R2為0.90 (P<0.01)。經產母豬之哺乳仔豬日增重(PADG, g)和泌乳母豬泌乳第一週平均蛋白質(SFI1CP, g)或離胺酸(SFI1LYS, g)攝取量之關係分別為PADG=131.10+0.11×SFI1CP (R2=0.35,P<0.01),和PADG=133.03+1.98×SFI1LYS (R2=0.31,P<0.01)。驗證母豬繁殖模擬模式,結果顯示初產次母豬所分娩的仔豬出生體重、離乳體重、泌乳母豬飼料採食量以及分娩後體重皆較經產母豬為低,顯示模擬值與試驗值之趨勢相似,模擬模式已具有一定的參考價值。
綜合以上試驗得知,泌乳母豬單一產次飼料中含蛋白質13 %並未顯著影響哺乳仔豬性能,但持續餵飼達三產次將導致母豬泌乳期間體重和背脂嚴重之損失。熱季飼養泌乳母豬提供含蛋白質15 %添加離胺酸0.20 %飼料,並不能改善泌乳母豬和其仔豬的性能,但可提高涼季仔豬離乳體重和日增重。有關哺乳仔豬體重生長模式之建立,初產母豬以分娩後體重和經產母豬以泌乳第一週採食量為影響哺乳仔豬體重之主要因子。將試驗資料輸入電腦模擬模式之預測值與試驗結果比較有相似之趨勢,故模擬模式之應用已具有一定的參考價值。
This study involving 158 crossbred sows (total 263 litters) were conducted at five experiments to asses the effect of dietary protein and lysine levels on lactating sows and litter performance, and to validate the response of reproductive model on protein nutrition of lactating sows and establishment of piglet growth model.
Experiment 1: Seventy-three Yorkshire sows (24 primiparous and 49 second- and third-parity sows) were allotted into three dietary protein treatments according to parity at parturition. Dietary treatments were formulated with corn-soybean meal and wheat bran to contain 12.8, 14.8, and 16.8 % crude protein. Analyzed lysine content of diets was 0.59, 0.74, and 0.89 %. Sows had ad libitum access to their assigned diets from the day of postpartum to weaning at 28 days. The result showed that the interaction of sow parity and dietary protein was not significant for any of the response variables measured. Dietary protein concentrations between 12.8 and 16.8 % did not influence voluntary feed intake, lactational weight or backfat changes of sows, but parity did. The dietary protein tended to increase litter weight gain and piglet daily gain and significantly (P<0.05) improved pigs born alive of the subsequent litter. Postweaning interval to estrus was unaffected by dietary protein.
Experiment 2 and Experiment 3: The effect of dietary protein and lysine levels on lactating sows and litter performance were studied. Thirty-six crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were used. After farrowing, sows were randomly allocated to one of the three treatments over three parities. Thirty-three and twenty-nine sows were studied in their second parity and third parity in this experiment, respectively. The three dietary treatments were : (1) the control diet containing 15 % CP and 0.75 % lysine, (2) a diet containing 13 % CP and 0.75 % lysine (0.60 % natural + 0.15 % synthetic), and (3) a diet containing 13 % CP and 0.60 % lysine. They were fed twice daily and allowed ad libitum access to food and water throughout a 28-day lactation from parturition until weaning. The results indicated that primiparous sows fed with 13 % CP diet supplemented with 0.15 % lysine could not prevent loss of body weight or backfat, but litter weight gain was increased to the level of the 15 % CP diet. Supplementing lower dietary protein with synthetic lysine could mitigate backfat losses, but could not prevent body weight losses in multiparous lactating sows. There was a tendency towards decreased piglet weight at weaning (P<0.10) and reduced daily gain of piglets (P<0.11) when the multiparous sows were fed the 13 % protein diet during lactation.
Experiment 4: Forty-nine crossbred sows (total 92 litters) were used to study the effect of dietary lysine supplementation on performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets during warm and cool seasons. Sows were randomly allocated to one of two dietary which were fed throughout a 28-day lactation period. Two diets were formulated with corn-soybean meal and 6 % wheat bran, containing 15 % crude protein, without or with 0.25 % lysine-HCl supplementation. There was no interaction between season and dietary lysine supplementation. Dietary lysine supplementation had significant (P<0.05) higher in weaning weight (7.11 vs. 6.46kg) and daily gain (0.200 vs. 0.180kg) of piglets. When split by season, lactating sows fed during the warm season had significantly lower feed intake (6.11 vs. 3.63 kg, P<0.01), higher lactational weight loss (9.73 vs. 19.81 kg, P<0.01) and backfat loss (0.064 vs. 0.233 cm, P<0.01), longer interval to estrus (6.21 vs. 9.32 days, P<0.05), lower litter weight gain (52.90 vs. 42.13 kg, P<0.01) and lower daily gain (0.211 vs. 0.173kg, P<0.01), and higher creep feed intake (1.62 vs. 3.00 kg/litter, P<0.01) than those during the cool season. The results indicated that the influence of dietary treatment and season was independent. The CP 15.0 % lactation diet with 0.25 % lysine-HCl supplementation do not improve the performance of lactating sows and litter piglets which is impaired by the warm season.
Experiment 5: The data of this study included the experiment 2 and experiment 3. The objective of this study was to estimate the piglet body weight change during suckling period at the different parities, and to find the growth model of suckling pigs, and to validate the response of reproductive model on protein nutrition of lactating sows. The results showed that the best growth model of suckling piglets for primiparous sows was: weight of suckling piglet (kg/wk)=1.448+1.263×wk of age-0.117×litter size+0.0055×farrowed weight of sows (R2=0.91, P<0.01). The best growth model of suckling piglets for multiparous sows was: weight of suckling piglet (kg/wk)=1.668+1.322×wk of age-0.122×litter size+0.2244×daily feed intake at first week after farrowing (R2=0.90, P<0.01). The relationship between the daily gain of suckling piglets (PADG, g) and the daily protein (SFI1CP, g) or lysine (SFI1LYS, g) intake on the multiparous lactating sow at first week would be expressed as : PADG = 131.10+0.11×SFI1CP (R2=0.35, P<0.01), and PADG = 133.03 + 1.98×SFI1LYS (R2=0.31, P<0.01), respectively.
The present study indicated that 15 % crude protein lactation diet with 0.25 % lysine-HCl supplementation did not improve the performance of lactating sows and litter piglets which was impaired at the warm season. Dietary lysine supplementation increased weaning weight and daily gain of piglets during the cool season. Sows fed with 13% crude protein diet could not prevent loss of body weight or backfat. The growth model of suckling piglets was influenced by body weight on farrowed for primiparous sows, but it was influenced by daily feed intake at first week after farrowing for multiparous sows.
目 錄
頁次
壹、中文摘要………………………………………………1
貳、前 言…………………………………………………5
參、文獻檢討………………………………………………8
一、泌乳期飼料採食量和母豬性能之關係……………8
(一)影響泌乳母豬飼料採食量之因素………………8
1.動物因素…………………………………………8
2.飼料營養…………………………………………11
3.環境因素…………………………………………13
(二)泌乳期飼料採食量對母豬體重、背脂和仔豬之影響…15
1.體重和背脂之變化………………………………15
2.仔豬性能…………………………………………16
二、泌乳期飼料營養和母豬離乳後再發情間距之
關係………………………………………………18
(一)母豬離乳後再發情間距之重要性………………21
(二)能量之影響………………………………………21
(三)蛋白質之影響……………………………………23
(四)脂肪添加之影響…………………………………24
(五)飼料採食量之影響………………………………25
三、飼料中蛋白質與離胺酸含量和泌乳母豬性能之
關係…………………………………………………28
(一)飼料蛋白質與離胺酸含量對泌乳母豬體重、背脂
和哺乳仔豬性能之影響…………………………30
(二)飼料蛋白質與離胺酸含量對母豬代謝之影響…33
(三)泌乳母豬飼料中適當之蛋白質與離胺酸含量…34
四、母豬繁殖模擬模式之發展…………………………36
肆、試驗部份………………………………………………40
第一章、飼料蛋白質含量對泌乳母豬和其仔豬性能
之影響…………………………………………40
第一節、摘 要………………………………………40
第二節、前 言………………………………………41
第三節、材料與方法…………………………………42
第四節、結果與討論…………………………………45
第二章、初產母豬泌乳期飼料蛋白質含量和添加離胺
酸對其繁殖性能和仔豬生長之影響…………50
第一節、摘 要………………………………………50
第二節、前 言………………………………………51
第三節、材料與方法…………………………………52
第四節、結果與討論…………………………………55
第三章、經產母豬泌乳期飼料蛋白質含量和添加離胺
酸對其繁殖性能和仔豬生長之影響…………61
第一節、摘 要………………………………………61
第二節、前 言………………………………………62
第三節、材料與方法…………………………………63
第四節、結果與討論…………………………………65
第四章、飼料在不同季節添加離胺酸對泌乳母豬性能之
影響……………………………………………72
第一節、摘 要………………………………………72
第二節、前 言………………………………………72
第三節、材料與方法…………………………………74
第四節、結果與討論…………………………………76
第五章、哺乳仔豬生長模式之建立與泌乳母豬蛋白
質營養於繁殖模擬模式之驗證………………84
第一節、摘 要………………………………………84
第二節、前 言………………………………………85
第三節、材料與方法…………………………………86
第四節、結果與討論…………………………………90
伍、結 論…………………………………………………113
陸、參考文獻………………………………………………115
柒、英文摘要………………………………………………128
表 次
頁次
表1. 泌乳母豬試驗飼料組成……………………………………43
表2. 飼料蛋白質含量對初產和經產母豬性能之影響…………46
表3. 泌乳母豬試驗飼料組成……………………………………54
表4. 降低飼料中蛋白質含量與添加離胺酸對初產泌乳母豬性
能表現之影響………………………………………………56
表5. 降低初產母豬泌乳期飼料中蛋白質含量與添加離胺酸對
哺乳仔豬性能之影響………………………………………58
表6. 降低飼料中蛋白質含量與添加離胺酸對經產泌乳母豬性
能表現之影響………………………………………………66
表7. 降低經產母豬泌乳期飼料中蛋白質含量與添加離胺酸對
哺乳仔豬性能之影響………………………………………69
表8. 泌乳母豬試驗飼料組成……………………………………75
表9. 試驗期間分娩舍中涼熱季節最高和最低溫平均值………77
表10. 泌乳期飼料在不同季節添加離胺酸對母豬性能之影響…79
表11. 泌乳母豬飼料在不同季節添加離胺酸對仔豬性能之影響…81
表12. 母豬試驗飼料組成…………………………………………87
表13. 母豬基本資料之平均值……………………………………91
表14. 母豬繁殖之電腦模擬模式之輸入報表……………………104
表15. 母豬繁殖之電腦模擬模式之模擬結果與各項報表………107
表16. 泌乳母豬基本資料模擬值與試驗結果之比較……………111
圖 次
頁次
圖1. 種母豬的飼養流程……………………………………………9
圖2. 增加種豬場生產力……………………………………………19
圖3. 母豬營養和繁殖間的關係……………………………………20
圖4. 泌乳期營養分影響母豬離乳後配種間距與排卵率
的理論模式……………………………………………………27
圖5. 影響母豬繁殖效率之主要因素………………………………29
圖6. 初產母豬分娩後體重與哺乳仔豬體重之關係………………94
圖7. 經產母豬泌乳期第一週採食量與哺乳仔豬體重之關係……96
圖8. 哺乳仔豬日增重和泌乳母豬每日採食量之關係……………98
圖9. 經產母豬泌乳期第一週採食量和哺乳仔豬日增重之關係…100
圖10. 哺乳仔豬體重試驗值與模擬值之比較……………………112
參考文獻
王宏森。1999。哺乳仔豬生長模擬模式之驗證。碩士論文。國立中興大學畜產學研究所。
台灣地區飼養標準─豬。1990。行政院農業委員會發行。台灣養豬科學研究所出版。
阮喜文及郭玫均。1999。種母豬繁殖之電腦模擬模式。中畜會誌,28(4):499-510。
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