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研究生:張學農
研究生(外文):Hsueh-Nung Chang
論文名稱:土壤水分境況及氮磷肥管理對紅龍果產量與品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Soil Moisture Regimes, Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizer on Yield and Quality of Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) Fruit.
指導教授:陳世雄陳世雄引用關係莊周瑞
指導教授(外文):Shih-Shiung ChenJou-Ruey Juang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:紅龍果土壤水分境況氮肥磷肥
外文關鍵詞:pitayasoil moisture regimenitrogen fertilizerphosphate fertilizer
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中文摘要
本試驗目的在探討土壤水分境況與氮、磷肥施用量對紅龍果產量與品質的影響。1999年12月至2000年12月於國立中興大學農業試驗場進行田間試驗(台中霧峰),採雙重裂區設計。土壤水分境況為主區,分別以低(0.02MPa)、中(0.04MPa)及高(0.06MPa)三個等級土壤水分張力,做為灌溉起點。氮肥處理為副區,分別施以低(每叢每年1.14公斤氮素)及高(每叢每年3.36公斤氮素)兩種氮肥用量。磷肥處理為小區,分別施以低(每叢每年1.29公斤磷酐)、中(每叢每年1.73公斤磷酐)及高(每叢每年2.18公斤磷酐)三個磷肥用量。本試驗紀錄紅龍果結果枝數、開花數與產量。並分三次進行初期果、盛期果及晚期果食味品評試驗。同時也進行果肉碳水化合物成分化學分析。探討處理對紅龍果營養生長、果實產量與品質的影響。
田間試驗結果顯示,土壤水分境況對紅龍果全年總產量、結果枝數及開花數有顯著影響。果實總產量以0.02MPa為灌溉起點處理之每公頃14923公斤最高,提高土壤水分張力使果實總產量分別降低36.2%(0.04MPa)及39.4%(0.06MPa)。結果枝數以0.02MPa為灌溉起點之處理最多(26.3條/叢),提高土壤水分張力使結果枝數分別降低22.2%(0.04MPa)及37.4%(0.06MPa)。開花數亦以0.02MPa為灌溉起點之處理開花數目最多(27.39朵/叢),提高土壤水分張力使開花數分別減少36.9%(0.04MPa)及41.3%(0.06MPa)。
磷肥施用量對紅龍果果實總產量有顯著影響。高磷肥施用量處理的果實年產量最高,每公頃生產紅龍果果實12982公斤,降低磷肥施用量使果實產量分別減少8.8%(中磷肥施用量)及9.4%(低磷肥施用量)。
土壤水分境況處理與磷肥施用量處理交感對果實總產量、結果枝數及開花數均有極顯著影響。以低土壤水分張力(0.02MPa)為灌溉起點時,果實總產量、結果枝數目及開花數對磷肥施用量之反應均較中、高土壤水分張力(0.04MPa或0.06MPa)下高,且對磷肥施用量呈二次曲線關係,分別為Y(產量) = - 28000 + 45165 X - 12940 X2(R2 = 21.4% ),推薦用量為每叢每年1.745公斤磷酐;Y(結果枝數)= - 9.3 + 47.9 X - 15.0 X2(R2 = 11.2%),推薦用量為每叢每年1.60公斤磷酐;及Y(開花數) = - 30.5 + 68.9 X - 19.6 X2(R2 = 7.8%),磷肥推薦最適量為每叢每年1.76公斤磷酐。
初期果果型、果皮顏色、果肉潔白度及總評均以0.06MPa處理獲得之品評分數最高,且差異顯著。但以0.06MPa為灌溉起點之處理,盛期果品質較差。顯示盛產期之紅龍果植株較初產期需要更多的灌溉。晚期果也是以0.02MPa 為灌溉起點之處理,品質較好。
低氮肥處理下,晚期果品質較好。高磷肥施用量處理下,初期果及盛期果品質較好。但晚期果以中磷肥施用量品質較好。
土壤水分張力與磷肥施用量對果實品質呈顯著交感。整體而言,高土壤水分張力、高磷肥施用量處理,初期果果實品質較佳。盛期果與晚期果則以低土壤水分張力,高磷肥施用量處理,品質較好。
果肉碳水化合物分析結果顯示,施用過量氮肥會降低晚期果果實蔗糖濃度,而降低果實甜度。低氮肥、中磷肥施用量下,晚期果蔗糖濃度及品評甜度分數較高。
由於紅龍果屬仙人掌科,因此農民多有錯誤觀念,認為仙人掌屬沙漠植物,要儘量減少灌溉。事實上,紅龍果原產於中美洲熱帶雨林,性喜高溫多濕環境。紅龍果雖然耐旱,但灌溉可顯著提高產量與品質。磷肥亦可提高紅龍果產量與品質,配合適度灌溉可提高磷肥的效果。因此,本試驗建議土壤水分及磷肥管理以0.02MPa為灌溉起點,每叢植株每年施用1.75公斤磷酐,應是生產高品質紅龍果的適當原則。
Effects of Soil Moisture Regimes, Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizers on Yield and Quality of Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus ) Fruit.
Summary
Hsueh-Nung Chang
Field experiments were conducted form December, 1999 through 2000 to investigate the effects of soil moisture regimes (SMR), rates of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer on yield and quality of pitaya fruit. Field experiment was held at orchard in AES of National Chung Hsing University (Wufeng, Taichung). The experiment design was a split-split plot arranged in a randomized complete block with 5 replications. Whole plots were 3 levels of soil moisture regimes (0.02, 0.04,and 0.06MPa). Subplots were 2 rates of nitrogen (1.14 and 3.36 kg/plant-yr). The sub-subplot was 3 rates of phosphate (1.29, 1.73, and 2.18kg P2O5/plant-yr). Number of fruiting cladodes and flowers, and fruit yield were recorded to study the effects of treatments on vegetative growth and fruit yield of pitaya. Panel testing for sensory evaluation was held at July 13, Sep. 1 and Oct. 6, 2000 to evaluate the quality of early, mid and late period fruits. Chemical analyses of sugar contents were also conducted at NCHU to investigate the effects of treatments on fruit quality.
Experimental results indicated that the lower soil moisture tension practiced by increasing irrigation frequency, resulted in higher fruit yield, number of fruiting cladodes and flowers. Fruit yields of 0.04 and 0.06 MPa plots were declined 36.2 %and 39.4%, respectively, than that of 0.02 MPa plots. Number of fruiting cladodes of 0.02 MPa plot was the highest (26.3 cladodes/plant). Raising soil moisture tension to 0.04 and 0.06MPa reduced number of fruiting cladodes by 22.2% and 37.4%, respectively. Number of flowers from 0.02 MPa plot was also the highest (27.39 flowers/plant). Increasing soil moisture tension to 0.04 and 0.06MPa reduced number of flowers by 36.9% and 41.3%, respectively.
Effects of phosphate significantly affected fruit yield and number of cladodes. High phosphate rate (2.18kgP2O5/plant-yr) resulted in the highest fruit yield (12982kg/ha). Lower rates of phosphate reduced fruit yield by 8.8%(1.73 kg P2O5/plant-yr) and 9.4%(1.29 kg P2O5/plant-yr), respectively.
SMR and rates of phosphate showed significant interaction on fruit yield, number of fruiting cladodes and flowers. Fruit yield, number of fruiting cladodes and flowers showed a better response to rates of phosphate application in 0.02MPa than that in 0.04 and 0.06MPa plots. The quadratic equations of response for fruit yield was Y = - 28000 + 45165 X - 12940 X2 (R2 = 21.4%, optimal input: 1.745kg P2O5/plant), number of fruiting cladodes was Y = - 9.3 + 47.9 X - 15.0 X2 (R2 = 11.2%, optimal input: 1.60kg P2O5/plant) and number of flowers was Y = - 30.5 + 68.9 X - 19.6 X2 (R2 = 7.8%, optimal input: 1.76kg P2O5/plant) to rates of phosphate under 0.02MPa irrigation starting point. Phosphate showed poor responses for growth and yield of pitaya fruits under the treatments of 0.04 and 0.06 SMR.
Fruit shape, peel color, pulp appearance and overall evaluation of early fruit were all significantly promoted in 0.06MPa plot. But qualities of mid period fruit showed poor quality in 0.06 MPa plot. When bearing mid period fruit, pitaya plants need more irrigation than bearing early period fruit. Soil moisture stress obviously degraded qualities of pitaya fruit.
Qualities of late period fruits were significantly enhanced under low rate of nitrogen application. Under high rate of phosphate application, qualities of early and mid period fruits were promoted. But late period fruits showed a high quality under mid rate of phosphate application.
Interactions between SMR and rates of phosphate significantly affected fruit quality. High soil tension with high phosphate rate resulted in high quality of early fruit. Low soil moisture tension with high phosphate resulted in better mid and late fruit quality.
Analysis of carbohydrate contents in pitaya fruits showed that excessive nitrogen reduced concentration of sucrose thus reduced sweetness score of eating quality in panel testing. Score of sweetness and sucrose content were promoted under middle rate of phosphate and low rate of nitrogen.
Because pitaya is a kind of cactus crop, growers might have an incorrect impression that irrigation should be restricted to avoid root rotting. Actually, pitaya is originated from rainforests in Central America, which is warm and moist. Although pitaya is drought tolerant, irrigation can significantly increase yield and quality under well soil drainage condition. Phosphate also significantly increased yield and quality of pitaya fruit, and irrigation can promote its availability. It is suggested that keep soil moisture tension in the orchard at 0.02 MPa as starting point for irrigation, and application of 1.75kg P2O5 per plant is essential to a high fruit yield and quality of pitaya.
目錄
表目錄………………………………………………………Ⅰ
圖目錄………………………………………………………Ⅱ
附錄目錄……………………………………………………Ⅲ
中文摘要……………………………………………………..1
壹、緒言……………………………………………………..4
貳、前人研究………………………………………………..6
參、材料與方法……………………………………………26
肆、結果與討論……………………………………………33
一、 土壤水分境況及氮、磷肥施用量對紅龍果生育及產量之
影響…………………………………………………………33
二、土壤水分境況、氮肥、及磷肥對紅龍果果實數目及果實
大小之影響…………………………………………………56
三、土壤水分境況、氮肥、及磷肥對紅龍果品質之影響……65
四、土壤水分境況、氮肥、及磷肥對果肉化學成分之影響..100
伍、綜合討論……………………………………………...106
陸、結論…………………………………………………...112
Summary..…………………………………………………..114
參考文獻…………………………………………………...117
附錄………………………………………………………...131
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