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研究生:陳雍程
論文名稱:土壤樣品鉛、鎘的逐步萃取
指導教授:陳秀卿陳秀卿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:逐步萃取金屬微波消化土壤樣品
外文關鍵詞:TessierBCRMicrowave DigestionMetalSoil
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:25
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  • 下載下載:65
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摘 要
本研究選用觀音鄉鎘土、中福村鎘土、中福村覆土、校園土及街道土分別代表已污染及未受污染之真實土壤,對土壤中Cd及Pb的存在組態作逐步萃取研究,其中逐步萃取法包括Tessier法及歐盟BCR法。
以微波消化法配合原子吸收光譜儀測定金屬總量得知,Cd的含量:觀音鄉鎘土為20.9 mg/kg;中福村鎘土為9.86 mg/kg;中福村覆土為2.08 mg/kg;街道土為0.47 mg/kg;校園土為0.87 mg/kg。Pb的含量依次為133 mg/kg,70.3 mg/kg,33.4 mg/kg,73.7 mg/kg及40.4 mg/kg,結果顯示,污染土壤中含量明顯高於未受污染土樣。
以Tessier法逐步萃取,結果顯示:污染土中Cd主要以可交換態存在,這部份金屬容易間接或直接影響到人類健康,而Pb在所測土樣中主要以鐵錳氧化態存在。利用0.1 N鹽酸萃取處裡的中福村鎘土會將其較易溶出的金屬萃出,可有效降低污染金屬對環境的衝擊。
以Tessier法萃取污染土時,Cd存在可交換態與碳酸鹽態共佔總量的76% - 87%,相對於BCR法第一步驟所萃出量佔總量的53% - 67%,顯示兩方法的萃出量並不一致,這應與萃取程序本身差異有關。
Tessier法第一步驟之空白值過高,經利用替代萃取劑後可以有效的降低空白值,較有利於低濃度樣品的萃取,但可能會使第一步驟的可交換態萃出量變大。在BCR的震盪方式試驗中顯示,直立式震盪或是傾斜式震盪的結果間並沒有明顯的差異。在BCR的萃取時間試驗中,結果顯示對土壤樣品的萃取時間8小時應已足夠,不過考慮到樣品的複雜性,還是以選用16小時的萃取時間為宜。
目錄
摘要I
目錄II
圖目錄IV
表目錄V
第一章 導論1
1-1 前言1
1-2 土壤重金屬污染來源及鎘與鉛之危害4
1-2-1 土壤中重金屬污染來源4
1-2-2 鎘的特性及其危害5
1-2-3鉛的特性及其危害7
1-3 土壤重金屬污染之測定8
1-3-1 總量之測定 9
1-3-2 單一萃取之測定10
1-3-3 逐步萃取之測定13
1-4 Tessier逐步萃取法15
1-4-1 Tessier法的萃取分布16
1-4-2 Tessier法的萃取劑18
1-4-3 Tessier法逐步萃取程序及萃取中其他因素之變化19
1-5 歐盟BCR逐步萃取法21
1-5-1 BCR法的萃取分布21
1-5-2 BCR法的萃取劑22
1-5-3 BCR法萃取程序之變化23
1-5-4製備逐步萃取標準樣品之可行性23
1-6研究目的與研究內容24
第二章 實驗部分26
2-1 儀器與設備26
2-2 藥品與器材27
2-3容器之清洗27
2-4 實驗土樣28
2-5 土樣中重金屬萃取方法32
2-5-1 總量萃取法32
2-5-2 Tessier逐步萃取法32
2-5-3 BCR萃取法36
2-6 儀器測定方法38
2-6-1 標準溶液之配製及儀器操作條件38
2-6-2 儀器測定之品保品管39
2-7 逐步萃取法操作條件變化之探討43
2-7-1 替代萃取劑之探討43
2-7-2 逐步萃取與單一溶劑萃取之比較探討44
2-7-3 萃取震盪方式之探討44
2-7-4 萃取時間變化之探討44
第三章 結果與討論46
3-1 鎘及鉛之儀器測定46
3-1-1 原子吸收光譜儀檢量線46
3-1-2 儀器偵測極限46
3-1-3 儀器直接測定或標準添加試驗之選定49
3-2 土樣鎘的萃取與測定49
3-2-1 鎘各萃取法的全程空白值及方法偵測極限49
3-2-2 土樣鎘總量萃取結果53
3-2-3 土樣鎘逐步萃取結果54
3-3 土樣鉛的萃取與測定61
3-3-1 鉛各萃取法的全程空白值及方法偵測極限61
3-3-2 土樣鉛總量萃取結果61
3-3-3 土樣鉛逐步萃取結果比較63
3-4 逐步萃取法中替代萃取劑之探討結果72
3-5 Tessier法單一萃取劑個別試驗結果之探討75
3-6 BCR法萃取震盪方式改變之探討79
3-7 BCR法萃取時間改變之探討79
第四章 結論85
參考文獻87
附 錄 92
附圖目錄93
附表目錄94
參考文獻
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