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研究生:黃美倫
研究生(外文):Mei-Lun Huang
論文名稱:中部空品區大氣氣膠中水溶性離子微粒之特性探討
指導教授:鄭曼婷鄭曼婷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Man-Ting Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:PM2.5PM2.5-10硫酸鹽硝酸鹽銨鹽空間變異性沙塵暴
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5PM2.5-10SulfateNitrateAmmoniumThe spatial variationsAsian dust storms
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本研究選擇中部地區八個地點,包括沿海地區之梧棲測站、台中都會地區之崇倫測站、彰化都會區之彰化測站、靠內陸的草屯、南投、竹山、埔里、雙冬及北山測站,於1999年8月到2000年3月間,利用雙粒徑分道採樣器,進行PM2.5及PM2.5-10微粒之日夜密集觀測,樣品中的水溶性陰陽離子濃度則以離子層析儀分析,然後配合密集觀測時之空氣品質資料及氣象資料,探討中部地區不同季節,不同地理位置的懸浮微粒和硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽和銨鹽微粒的時空變異特性。
研究結果顯示秋冬各測站PM10濃度皆較夏季高兩倍以上,微粒組成以細微粒為主,然3月份適逢大陸沙塵暴侵襲,各測站粗微粒之濃度明顯增加。水溶性離子特性上,採樣期間硫酸鹽於PM10中之含量介於6 ~ 12 %,其空間變異性小,且較前兩年同時期的硫酸鹽濃度含量少,顯示台電電廠SO2排放減量有助於中部硫酸鹽的改善,然而硝酸鹽含量較前兩年增加約0.3 ~ 4.5 %;尤其秋冬PM10高污染時期硝酸鹽和NO2濃度大幅增加,可能是交通污染源的影響;銨鹽的區域性分佈及空間變異性與硫酸鹽相似。然而內陸地區由於風速低,污染物擴散不易,其PM10濃度高於台中都會及沿海地區,尤其在高污染時期,細粒及硝酸鹽的濃度明顯上升;沿海地區SO2和硫酸鹽比例明顯較其它地區高,顯示台中電廠對沿海硫酸鹽濃度有影響但是沿海地區風速大,PM10濃度及空氣品質皆較其它地區良好。
Eight sampling sites in the Central Taiwan were chosen to collect PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples from August 1999 to March 2000. Sampling stations included Wuchi coastal station, Chunglun and Changhwa urban stations, Tsaotun, Nanton, Chushan, Puli, Shuantung and Peishan stations in the inland area. In this research, dichotomous samplers were used to collect aerosol samples during daytime and nighttime period. Water-soluble ionic species in particulate phase were analyzed with ion chromatography. Aerosol data were then evaluated with air-quality and meteorological data in order to investigate the seasonal and the spatial variations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium particulates in the Central Taiwan.
Results showed that average PM10 concentrations in autumn and winter were about two times higher than those in summer. PM2.5 concentrations were usually greater than those of PM2.5-10. However coarse particulate matters (PM2.5-10) increased significantly in spring 2000 due to the influence of the prevailing Asian dust storms. Sulfate accounted for 6 % to 12 % of PM10. Distributions of sulfate were relatively uniform in the Central Taiwan as compared with those of nitrate. Sulfate concentrations measured in 1999 ~ 2000 were lower than those obtained in 1997 ~ 1998. Reduction of SO2 emissions from the Taiwan Electric Power Plant during this period might influence the local ambient sulfate concentrations. On the contrary, nitrate concentrations were 0.3 ~ 4.5 % higher. Particularly, the concentrations of nitrate and NO2 increased significantly during PM10 episodes in the autumn and winter, probably due to the traffic related emissions. Ammonium displayed similar spatial variation of sulfate. PM10 concentrations in the inland areas were found higher than those in the coastal and the urban areas. Such variations may be attributed to lower wind speed in the inland area. Although higher wind speed was often recorded at the coastal site, SO2 and sulfate percentage in PM10 were apparently higher as compared with the other sites in Central Taiwan. These results provided evidence for the role of the Electric Power Plant in the high emission levels in the coastal area .
第一章 前言………………………………………………..1-1
1.1 研究緣起…………………………………………………….1-1
1.2 研究目的…………………………………………………….1-3
1.3 研究方法…………………………………………………….1-3
第二章 文獻回顧 …………………………………………2-1
2.1 大氣氣膠的來源及組成 …………………………………...2-1
2.2 大氣氣膠對環境或健康的影響 …………………………...2-3
2.3 影響懸浮微粒濃度之因子 ………………………………...2-5
2.4 大氣氣膠水溶性離子之形成…………….………………...2-6
2.5大氣氣膠水溶性離子之粒徑分佈………………………….2-8
2.6 水溶性離子物種之特性 …………………………….…….2-10
2.7 相關之研究 ………………………………………………...2-13
第三章 研究方法 ………………………………………...3-1
3.1 採樣規劃 …………………………………………………...3-1
3.1.1採樣測站之選擇與環境描述 ……………………….…3-1
3.1.2 採樣時間 ………………………………………………3-4
3.1.3 採樣濾紙處理程序 ……………………………………3-5
3.1.4 採樣儀器設備 …………………………………………3-5
3.2分析項目及分析方法 ………………………………………3-7
3.2.1水溶性陰陽離子分析 …………………………………3-7
3.2.2氣膠微粒酸鹼性之判斷 ………………………………3-8
3.2.3氣膠中硫氧化物及氮氧化物轉化強度之分析 ………3-9
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………….4-1
4.1 PM10觀測值和空品測站監測值之比較………………….4-1
4.2 大氣懸浮微粒質量濃度變化分析…………………………4-7
4.2.1 密集採樣期間之空氣品質狀態…………………………4-7
4.2.2 大氣PM10懸浮微粒質量濃度之變化………………..4-9
4.2.3 懸浮微粒日夜濃度變化………………………………4-19
4.2.4 混合層高度對懸浮微粒濃度之影響…………………4-22
4.2.5 懸浮微粒之空間變異性………………………………4-24
4.3 水溶性離子成分之分析結果………………………………4-25
4.3.1 水溶性離子之濃度、百分比及粒徑分佈……………4-25
4.3.2 水溶性離子於測站間之相關性………………………4-36
4.4 氣膠微粒之酸鹼性…………………………………………4-41
4.4.1 不同粒徑之微粒酸鹼性特性…………………………4-41
4.4.2 不同空氣品質下微粒酸鹼性之特性…………………4-43
4.4.3 不同採樣區間微粒酸鹼性之特性……………………4-44
4.5 氣膠中硫氧化物及氮氧化物之轉化強度分析……………4-47
4.6 高污染時期懸浮微粒的組成與氣象因子影響分析………4-50
4.7 歷年來中部地區PM10組成之變化………………………..4-53
4.7.1 台中電廠硫氧化物及氮氧化物排放減量之情形……4-53
4.7.2 歷年來微粒組成之變化……………………………....4-57
第五章 結論……………………………………………….5-1
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附錄
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