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研究生:方荷西
研究生(外文):Jose Francisco Fonseca Ramirez
論文名稱:臺灣芒果產銷班關鍵成功因素之探討
論文名稱(外文):Identification of Critical Success Factors Related to the Performance of Mango Production and Marketing Teams in Taiwan
指導教授:邱宗治邱宗治引用關係洪仁杰洪仁杰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzong-Chiz ChiouRern-Jay Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:關鍵成功因素產銷班農會南化組織文化
外文關鍵詞:critical success factorsproduction and marketing teamsFarmers&aposAssociationsNan Huaorganizational culture
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本研究包含兩部份,第一部份在探討影響芒果產銷班績效之關鍵成功因素;第二部分則是對以芒果為主要輔導作物的台南縣南化鄉農會進行個案研究。
在關鍵成功因素的探討方面,本研究以44個台南及屏東的芒果產銷班作為調查對象,每一班均填寫一份班長問卷及三份班員問卷。此外,我們亦取得由農政單位所作的產銷班績效評估作為其績效之替代變數。
研究結果顯示,若以產銷班績效評估結果作為產銷班績效之替代變數,則「領導」是芒果產銷班最重要的關鍵成功因素;而教育程度較高的班長,在「領導」上的表現較佳。此外,班長教育程度較高的產銷班,在品牌、群體思考及規範上表現亦較佳。
在南化鄉農會的個案研究方面,本研究以組織文化、員工組織承諾以及員工的工作滿意度,來探討其組織效能。
本研究採用兩個工具指標,即是Cameron and Quinn(1999)所發展的管理技巧指標(MSAI)及組織文化指標(OCAI)。MSAI主要是用於衡量總幹事之管理技巧,而OCAI則是用來衡量南化鄉農會六個部門負責人對組織文化之看法。此外,本研究亦對農會中所有同仁進行問卷,以瞭解工作同仁在工作滿意度、組織承諾以及其他與組織文化有關問題的看法。而MSAI、OCAI以及員工問卷的結果將被整合起來,來描述南化鄉農會之組織文化。研究結果顯示南化鄉農會的組織文化屬於Clan文化。此文化之特色在於高的組織承諾以及高的員工滿意度。
我們認為南化鄉農會對其目標之瞭解、高的組織承諾以及高的員工滿意度,使得南化鄉農會得以為產銷班提供高品質服務。而南化鄉的產消班也由於得到農會的高品質服務而得以在芒果產業中表現優於其他產銷班。
This study comprised two parts. The first part searched for the critical success factors affecting the performance of Mango Production and Marketing Teams (PMT). The second part consisted in a case study about Nan Hua Township Farmers' Association (NHFA).
Forty-four Mango PMT from Tainan and Pingtung were surveyed to identify critical success factors related to their performance. Four questionnaires were completed for each team, one for the leader and three for PMT members. Last annual evaluation of PMT carried out by the government was used as proxy of their performance.
Leadership was the individual factor that explained better the performance obtained by the PMT in the evaluation. Furthermore, more educated leaders scored significantly higher in leadership and tended to obtain better qualifications in latest government's evaluation of PMT. Leader's education level had significant effect on brand, groupthink, and rules & norms. The PMT obtained higher scores in these factors when leader's education was high school compared to leaders with up to primary school.
The second part consisted of a case study of NHFA, a successful Farmers' Association in mango industry. NHFA's effectiveness was approached from the analysis of its organizational culture and employee's commitment towards the organization, and their satisfaction at job. This case study was aimed to find characteristics associated to high performing organizations that could be related to the success of both the Farmers' Association (FA) and its PMT.
The Managerial Skill Assessment Instrument (MSAI), and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) described by Cameron and Quinn (1999) were used to obtain descriptions of managerial behavior on the job and to diagnose NHFA's organizational culture respectively. The first one was applied to the General Manager and the second instrument to six section managers of NHFA. A questionnaire was used to assess employee's satisfaction level at job, commitment towards the organization and understanding of organization's mission. The three sources of information were integrated to explain the success of both FA and the PMT in NHFA.
In NHFA predominates clan culture. Characteristics associated to this culture were also detected among NHFA's employees.
We concluded that a clear understanding of their mission, and a strong commitment and good level of satisfaction among employees, have lead NHFA to provide high quality services to their PMT. The quality of the services received from NHFA have permitted Nan Hua’s PMT to outperform other teams in the mango industry.
ABSTRACTI
ABSTRACT IN CHINESEIV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSVI
LIST OF TABLESXIII
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSXVI
IINTRODUCTION1
IILITERATURE REVIEW5
1Factors Related to the Performance of Team Groups5
1Theory Related5
a)Performance in Teams6
(1)Group Cohesiveness8
(2)Rules and Norms9
(3)Team Decision-Making10
(4)Leadership13
(5)Cooperative Marketing16
(6)Assembling and Grading17
(7)Activities in Self Managed Teams17
2Identification of Critical Success Factors18
3Empirical Studies Related19
(1)Performance of PMT20
2Organizational Performance21
1Theory Related21
a)Organizational Culture22
(1)The Competing Values Framework24
(2)The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI)28
b)Employees and Organizational Performance29
c)The Management Skills Assessment Instrument (MSAI)31
IIIPRODUCTION AND MARKETING TEAMS AND FARMERS’ ASSOCIATIONS33
1Development of Small-Holder Farmers’ Groups33
2Criteria to Create a PMT38
3Assistance to PMT38
4Training39
5Evaluation and Reward of PMT40
6Farmers’ Associations in Taiwan40
1The Organization41
IVNAN HUA TOWNSHIP FARMERS ASSOCIATION46
1General Information46
2Nan Hua Township Farmers' Association: Some Facts47
3Mango Production in Taiwan48
4International Market of Mango50
VMETHODOLOGY53
1Questionnaire Design57
2Survey Design60
3Secondary Data63
1Case Study69
a)What is a Case Study?69
b)Objectives of a Case Study70
c)How to Proceed in a Case Study?71
2MSAI74
3OCAI75
4Employees’ Questionnaire76
5Research Limitations77
VIRESULTS AND DISCUSSION78
1Identification of Critical Success Factors78
1Grouping PMT (Step 1)78
2Given Factors Associated to Types of PMT (Step 2)81
3Characteristics Associated to the PMT (Step 3)90
4PMT Profiles: Summary of the Main Characteristics of Teams Grouped in the Clusters97
a)PMT Grouped in Cluster 197
b)PMT Grouped in Cluster 298
c)PMT Grouped in Cluster 399
5Demographic Characteristics Associated to the Given Factors (Step 4)102
6Performance of PMT Depending on Demographic Variables (Step 5)106
7Performance of the PMT Depending on Given Factors (Step 6)109
8Correspondence Between PMT Classification Based on Primary Data and Performance Achievements (Step 7)114
9Major Findings of the Study on KSF114
2Nan Hua Township Farmers' Association Case Study116
1Results from the OCAI116
2Results from the MSAI123
3Results from Employees Survey128
VIICONCLUSIONS140
VIIIRECOMMENDATIONS145
IXREFERENCES147
XAPPENDIX151
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1.Chronology of the Development of Small-Holder Farmers’ Groups in Taiwan35
2.Major Objectives of PMT and Actions37
3.Number and Location of Mango Production and Marketing Teams Included in the Sample62
4.Types of Evidence Used in Case Studies, Strengths and Weaknesses73
5.Matrix of the Classification of PMT in the Clusters Using Linear Discriminant Function.80
6.Results of MANOVA Testing Given Factors Against Clusters82
7.Summary of Frequencies Observed for Variables Presented in Tables 30 to 39 in Appendix 3.100
8.Relationships Between Demographic Variables and Cooperative Behavior, use of Fund Sources and PMT Groups. Based on Tables 40 to 47 in Appendix 3.101
9.Results of MANOVA for Leader Education Compared to Given Factors103
10.Results of ANOVA Comparing Demographic Variables with PMT Performance108
11.Statistics Related to the Construction of the Predictor Model of PMT Performance.111
12.Understanding of FA’s Role with Farmers129
13.Self-Evaluation of Employees on Aspects Associated to Commitment with the Organization131
14.Employees Commitment Towards the Organization134
15.Employees Commitment Towards the Organization136
16.Evaluation of the Satisfaction Level Among Employees138
17.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Grading153
18.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Packaging153
19.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Order Management154
20.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Delivering154
21.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Rules and Norms155
22.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Cohesiveness155
23.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Brand156
24.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Plan156
25.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Labor156
26.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Decision Making157
27.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Production157
28.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Motivation158
29.Frequencies of Choices for Statements Measuring Groupthink158
30.Motivator to Perform Grading and Packaging159
31.Purposes of Packaging159
32.Motivations to Create the Teams160
33.Information Sources Used by the Teams160
34.Frequencies and Self-Evaluation of Participation in Training Courses161
35.Cooperative Purchasing and Items Purchased Together1162
36.Channels Used and Percentage Bought Together163
37.Cooperative Marketing and Channels Used to Buy in Group163
38.Sources of Funds to Finance PMT Projects164
39.Sources of Operational Fund to Finance PMT Businesses164
40.Education of Leader and Team Members by Cluster (Percentage)165
41.Team Size by Cluster165
42.Land Area by Cluster165
43.Average Age of Team Members by Cluster166
44.Cooperative Purchasing According to Team Age Categories166
45.Cooperative Purchasing Through the FA According to Team Age Categories167
46.Cooperative Marketing According to Team Age Categories167
47.Use of Financial Sources According to Team Age Categories167
48.Probabilities >0.05 Multivariate Analysis Between Demographic and Given Factors168
49.Evolution of the Composition of Agricultural Products in Taiwan (based on current prices)169
50.Evolution of the Composition of Crop Production in Taiwan (based upon current prices)169
51.Taiwan Exports of Fresh, Dried and Processed Mango in 1999170
52.Taiwan Imports of Processed Mango in 1999170
53.Main Producers of Mango and Percentage of Change in Production (million of tons) from 1995 to 1999171
54.Main Importers of Mango and Share in the World Market in 1998 (volume in million of tons)171
55.Main Markets for Mango and Suppliers172
56.Historical Records of Mango Statistics in Tainan County172
57.Major PMT by Category in 1997176
58.Composition of PMT by Number of Members, 1996176
59.Composition of PMT by Number of Members, 1996177
60.Effect of Decision Making of Production Plan in Vegetable PMT in Central Taiwan, 1996178
61.Measurement of Reducing Production Cost in Vegetable PMT in Central Taiwan, 1996178
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1.Flowchart of the Research4
2.Representation of the Two Dimensions and Types of Culture Described by Quinn and Rohrbaugh27
3.Diagram of the Analysis of Primary and Secondary Data Using Multiple Data Analysis Procedures.55
4.Averages of the Scores Given By NHFA Managers of Departments for the Six Culture Attributes Measured.118
5.Scores for the MSAI125
6.Cluster Tree152
7.Organizational Structure of Agricultural Extension Service Network in Taiwan.173
8.Organizational Structure of TownshipFarmers' Associations174
9.Organizational Structure of PMT175
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