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研究生:陳瀅如
研究生(外文):Ying-Ju Chen
論文名稱:礦物營養對蝴蝶蘭生育、組織礦物成分及抽梗時葉片品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of mineral nutrition on growth, mineral composition and leaf quality during stalk emergence of Phalaenopsis sp.
指導教授:李哖李哖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Nean Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:蝴蝶蘭黃斑黃化礦物營養
外文關鍵詞:Phalaenopsischlorotic spotmineral nutrition
相關次數:
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摘要
本研究主要在探討蝴蝶蘭礦物營養與黃斑發生的關係,中斷施肥及施肥錯誤與不同氮和鉀肥比例對其生長開花及光合作用之影響,涼溫抽梗與黃斑、黃化發生的關係,及利用各種介質提升介質的pH,擬瞭解蝴蝶蘭生育與礦物營養的關係,減少黃斑株的發生。
調查易發生黃斑大白花( TS340 )及粉紅花(TS365)品系及不易發生黃斑原生種Phal. amabilis 的健康苗,所有水苔的pH 約3。大白花介質的EC 值僅0.15-0.35 mS /cm,含氮僅 4 ppm,鉀高達 365 ppm;大致上葉片、莖和根的氮、磷、鈣、鎂含量都在合理範圍內。Phal. amabilis含鉀在3.56 %,大白花及粉紅花的葉片含鉀為0.4-0.64 %,較前人所測的 3-4 %,低很多;錳含量 541-702 ppm、鋅135-172 ppm、銅為 4-10 ppm,則較前人所測略高。在涼溫抽梗時,葉片有黃斑、黃化發生,此時調查黃斑株礦物營養,所有元素含量皆偏低,尤以鉀顯著偏低,且上、中間葉高於基部下位葉,可見鉀之供應有所不足。已具有抽梗能力之植株,無機養分含量高於非開花株,在台北種植雖含的無機養分較台南種植者高,若冬季光度不足,抽梗率及開花品質不若台南生產者,可見光度對開花的影響大於無機養分。
以 TS340 在10.5 cm大苗中斷施肥及施用魚精、海藻精1個月,葉片會出現黃斑,高達60-70 %,且植株無機養分含量低,葉片生長速率慢,即使後續施予肥料,仍達不到正常施肥的植株大小,且降低後期的開花品質。在水苔底下墊發炮煉石、真珠石可提升介質pH ,施肥添加碳酸鈣則促進植株對鈣的吸收,降低磷的有效性及吸收,三者對鉀的吸收及黃斑的發生改善有限,而水苔中拌入人造土則植體含鉀量高,且黃斑發生低,稍有改善效果。
15-10-30(1 g / L)、Johnson’s(全量)對植株營養生長、生殖生長佳,且可降低黃斑的發生,顯示提升鉀肥的濃度,對其生育有所助益。但為了配合業者普遍使用的肥料,以便於操作,故採用以20-20-20外,可加施 KNO3應可降低黃斑、黃化發生。建議業者應採15-10-30配方或介質可能拌入緩效性肥料,以防澆水時把養分洗出,致有缺肥之虞。

Summary
The relation between mineral nutrient and chlorotic, chlorotic spot were studied in this research. No application fertilizer and application fish emulsion or seaweed for 1 month and different of N: K ratio affects growth, flowering and photosynthesis. The occurrence of chlorotic and chlorotic spot related to simulated transport and forced (25/20°C) in greenhouse. Use of different medium rise of pH . Understanding the relation between growth of Phalaenopsis and mineral nutrient is in order to reduce the happen of chlorotic and chlorotic spot.
This research was studied the healthy plant of white flowers, pink flowers and Phal. amabilis. All pH of sphagnum moss was low. EC value of sphagnum moss of white flowers was small, content of nitrogen was low and content of potassium was 365 ppm highly. The content of N, P, Ca, Mg in leaf, stem and roots was in reasonable range. The content of K with white flowers and pink flowers was on 0.4-0.65 % which was lower than that of in the precious study;the content of Mn , Zn , Cu were higher than that of in the precious study, except Phal. amabilis. Simulated transport and forced (25/20°C) in greenhouse can bring about chlorotic, chlorotic spot. We found that all element content of chlorotic spot plant was lower than normal plant, especially on that of potassium. The content of potassium in upper and middle leaf was higher than lower leaf. It’s obvious that potassium was insufficient. The content of mineral nutrient in the plants with flower stalk was higher than those of in plants with out flower stalk. If plant has
highly mineral nutrient and light intensity is insufficient, it will not happen flower stalk. In other words, the influence of light intensity on flower stalk emergence is more importance than that of mineral nutrient.
Once no application fertilizer and application fish emulsion or seaweed for 1 month, leaf products chlorotic spot. The chlorotic spot plants percentage could reach 60-70 %. The plants that were low mineral nutrient brought about low of the rate of grow in leaf. Despite we follow to give them fertilizer, they can’t grow as normal plants and it affects quality of flowering.
Sphagnum which is embedded with LECA or perlite in the bottom can promote pH . Fertilized with CaCo3 can induce the absorption of Ca in plant, and reduce the absorption of P. The absorption of K and happening of chlorotic spot are not improved well by used LECA, perlite and CaCo3. Mix of artificial fiber brought about high K in plant and lower chlorotic spot. It’s better than the aboriginal mentioned.
15-10-30(1 g/ L), Johnson’s can bring about good growth, flowering and reduce the happening of chlorotic spot. We arising the concentration of fertilizer with K, the quality of plant growth can be improbability. We suggest to use 20-20-20+ KNO3 that can reduce chlorotic spot and chlorotic. In addition, the content of Phalaenopsis nutrient is most on critical point in Taiwan. Phalaenopsis which were exported to Japan or give water only product chlorotic spot easily. 20-20-20 added Osmocote(14-14-14) can be used in the stress.

目錄(Contents)
前言(Introduction)..........................................1
前人研究(Literature Review)...................................2
一、氮、磷、鉀生理(Physiology of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium)
.............................................................2
1.氮的吸收及利用對植物生長、開花之影響........................2
2.磷的吸收及利用對植物生長、開花之影響........................3
3.鉀的吸收及利用對植物生長、開花之影響........................4
二、蝴蝶蘭葉片黃斑、黃化發生原因之探討(Studies on the occurrence of chlorotic spots on Phalaenopsis leaves).........7
1.由病毒檢測法來探討黃斑......................................7
2.品系........................................................8
3.溫度........................................................8
4.礦物營養....................................................9
三、蘭花之栽培介質與礦物營養(Growing media and mineral nutrient of orchids)................................10
(一)栽培介質之演變.................................10
(二)栽培介質之種類與特性...........................11
(三)蘭花之肥培管理與植體之礦物營養.................13
材料與方法(Materials and Methods)..................20
一、植物材料(Plant Material).......................20
二、試驗場所與栽培管理方式(Growing Location and Cultural
Management).........................................20
三、試驗設計(Experimental design)....................21
(一)蝴蝶蘭礦物營養調查與抽梗快慢及葉片黃斑的發生...21
(二)間斷施肥及單獨施用魚精、海藻精對蝴蝶蘭生育之影響....................................................22
(三)不同肥料處理對蝴蝶蘭生長、開花及葉片黃斑、黃化之
影響.................................................24
(四)盆底墊不同介質及施用碳酸鈣或水苔中拌入人造土對蝴蝶蘭生長
開花及葉片黃斑之影響.................................25
四、測量項目與方法(Measurement Items and Methods)... 26
結果(Results)........................................33
一、蝴蝶蘭礦物營養調查與抽梗快慢及葉片黃斑的發生.....33
(一)不同生育階段及品種之礦物營養調查...............33
(二)不同生長地區和抽梗快慢的礦物營養調查與催花後葉片黃斑的發生
.....................................................35
(三)正常及黃斑植株之礦物營養調查...................36
二、間斷施肥及單獨施用魚精、海藻精對蝴蝶蘭生育之影響.53
(一)間斷施肥對蝴蝶蘭生育之影響.....................53
(二)單獨施用魚精、海藻精對蝴蝶蘭生育的影響.........56
三、不同肥料處理對蝴蝶蘭生長、開花及葉片黃斑、黃化之影響
.....................................................86
(一)不同肥料配方對Phal.Taisuco Swan (TS340) 大白花之生長開花、葉片黃斑、黃化及光合作用之影響.......................86
(二)不同肥料配方對 Phal. amabilis 之生長開花及葉片黃斑、黃化之
影響.................................................90
四、盆底墊不同介質及施用碳酸鈣或水苔中拌入人造土對蝴蝶蘭生長開花
及葉片黃斑之影響.....................................119
(一)盆底墊不同介質對蝴蝶蘭生長開花及葉片黃斑之影響.119
(二)施用 CaCO3 或水苔中拌入人造土對蝴蝶蘭生長開花及葉片黃斑之
影響.................................................120
討論(Discussion).....................................139
一、蝴蝶蘭基本礦物營養調查及不當施肥對其生長開花與葉片黃斑之影
響...................................................139
二、不同介質對蝴蝶蘭生長開花及葉片黃斑之影響.........142
三、不同肥料配方對蝴蝶蘭生長開花、光合作用及葉片黃斑、黃化之影
響...................................................144
中英文摘要(Summary)................................151
參考文獻(Literature cited).........................154
附錄( Appendix)......................................163

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