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研究生:顧維祺
研究生(外文):Wei-Chi Ku
論文名稱:金鑰分配與隱私需求系統的密碼協定
論文名稱(外文):Cryptographic Protocols for Key Distribution and Privacy-Sensitive Systems
指導教授:王勝德王勝德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-De Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:金鑰分配隱私需求系統電子投票匿名聯署行動通訊安全密碼協定
外文關鍵詞:Key DistributionPrivacy-Sensitive SystemElectronic VotingAnonymous EndorsementMobile Communication SecurityCryptographic Protocol
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本論文主要的目的在研究密碼技術的兩類重要應用,一是能讓多數密碼系統得以實際運作的金鑰分配協定,另一則是因應隱私與日高漲的隱私需求系統。雖然金鑰分配是個頗為古老的研究題目,然而,相關的設計與分析卻從沒停過,在本論文中,我們鎖定了三種分散型金鑰分配協定為研究對象,包括了以通行碼為基礎之金鑰分配協定、以識別碼為基礎之交談式金鑰分配協定與以識別碼為基礎之非交談式金鑰分配協定,在這部份的研究中,我們首先發現了在兩個新的以通行碼為基礎之金鑰分配協定中存在著數個安全漏洞,接著並設計了一個強化的以通行碼為基礎的金鑰分配協定,另外,我們也在一個以識別碼為基礎之交談式金鑰分配協定中找到了一個新的弱點,並提出了一個簡單的解決方法,之後,我們分析了三個屬於同一系列的以識別碼為基礎之非交談式金鑰分配協定,我們發現,即使是其中安全性最強的協定也仍藏著數個安全問題,於是,我們也提了一個較安全的協定。在研究金鑰分配協定這類的密碼協定時,我們體認到一個可應用於實際環境的密碼協定應有好的可回復性,這雖是我們過去便已提出的觀念,然而,這對於密碼協定安全性的描述與分析並無直接的幫助,所以,我們又提出了一個較具體的密碼協定可回復性分析之方法,藉著這方法,我們分析了作為階層式金鑰分配基礎的一個基本金鑰分配協定與其經修改後的版本,分析後發現,其實修改後的版本與原協定在金鑰洩漏並更新之後所面臨的風險並無多大差異且都有改良的空間,因此,我們也提出了一個回復性更好且較易實作的基本金鑰分配協定。
我們除了研究金鑰分配協定這類較直接的密碼應用技術外,也研究如何運用密碼技術來建構越來越受矚目的隱私需求應用系統,其中包含了電子投票、電子匿名聯署與GSM行動通訊系統使用者行蹤隱私之保護能力,針對電子投票部份,我們設計了一個不需假設投票者會遵守規定的電子投票系統,另外,我們也設計了一個有別於傳統聯署方法的電子匿名聯署系統,此系統可提供聯署者較好的隱私保護,雖然在許多情形下,因聯署書所具有的效力與聯署者的身份地位密切相關而有其公開聯署者身份的必要性,然而,仍有部份聯署的效力是取決於聯署者數目而非個別的身份或地位,如我國總統大選時非政黨推荐者為取得候選資格時所需的聯署便是一例,雖然電子投票看似可以滿足此需求,然而,在大部份的電子投票系統中,註冊取票者的身份並不被保護,這對投票來說不會有問題,但若直接應用在匿名聯署上便會產生大問題,很明顯的,不想聯署的人應不會去註冊取票,反過來說,註冊取票者將會被視作即將參與聯署的人,這也正是我們設計匿名聯署專用系統的理由。最後,我們探究了在許多國家或地區相當普及的GSM行動通訊系統之安全性,重點並放在使用者行蹤隱私的保護上,我們發現GSM在這方面仍有改進的空間,所以便為它設計了一個強化的安全機制,在這個強化的機制中,我們仍運用了它原始的密碼模組,但用法卻有不同,另外,此強化的安全機制也不會增加系統太多計算與傳輸的負擔。

In this dissertation, we study two important applications of cryptographic techniques, the key distribution protocol and the privacy-sensitive system. Although key distribution is an old issue, however, the researches on design and analysis of key distribution protocols never stop. Herein, we focus on three types of distributed key distribution protocols, the password-based, the interactive ID-based, and the non-interactive ID-based key distribution protocols. We find that two new distributed password-based key distribution protocols suffer from several attacks, and then propose an improved one. We also locate a new attack to a distributed interactive ID-based key distribution protocol, and then describe an improved one. Furthermore, we discover that even the most secure one of a family of three distributed non-interactive ID-based key distribution protocols remains vulnerable to several attacks, and then describe an improved one. Based on the concept of reparable protocols, we describe a simple analysis method for cryptographic protocol. Then, a fundamental key distribution protocol and one its variant are analyzed by using this method. As the analysis result reveals some deficiencies in these two protocols, we propose an improved fundamental key distribution protocol that is more reparable.
The design of key distribution protocol is a primitive application of cryptographic techniques. Certainly, cryptographic techniques can also be applied to construct high-level applications such as privacy-sensitive systems. In this dissertation, we concentrate on three privacy-sensitive applications, the electronic voting scheme, the electronic anonymous endorsement scheme, and the security scheme for mobile communications. We propose an anonymous channel based voting scheme that can operate without the cooperation of voters. Besides voting, endorsement is another method of democratic participation. In certain situations, the endorsers may desire privacy protection. However, conventional paper-based endorsement systems provide neither convenience nor well privacy protection for the endorsers. It motivates us to develop an anonymous endorsement system that can be realized on computer networks. GSM is the first mobile system that has been taken to international standard status with security techniques and features. However, its protection for subscriber anonymity has been regarded as insufficient for future use. In this dissertation, we propose an improved security scheme for GSM based on its existing security functional modules. The improved scheme can provide better security without incurring much computation and communications overhead.

Chapter 1Introduction1
1.1Key Distribution Protocols1
1.2Analysis Methods for Cryptographic Protocols3
1.3Privacy-Sensitive Systems4
1.4Research Goals6
Chapter 2Distributed Key Distribution Protocols8
2.1Password-Based Key Distribution Protocols8
2.1.1Seo-Sweeney Protocol9
2.1.2Tseng’s Protocol12
2.1.3An Improved Password-Based Key Distribution Protocol14
2.1.4Concluding Remarks16
2.2Interactive ID-based Key Distribution Protocols16
2.2.1Shieh-Yang-Sun Protocol17
2.2.2An Improved Interactive ID-Based Key Distribution Protocol21
2.2.3Concluding Remarks25
2.3Non-Interactive ID-Based Key Distribution Protocols26
2.3.1Okamoto-Tanaka Protocol27
2.3.2Tsai-Hwang Protocol29
2.3.3Tanaka-Okamoto Protocol30
2.3.4An Improved Non-Interactive ID-Based Key Distribution Protocol32
2.3.5Concluding Remarks35
Chapter 3Risk Analysis for Cryptographic Protocols36
3.1Analysis Methods for Cryptographic Protocols36
3.2Risk Analysis of Secret Keys in Cryptographic Protocols38
3.3Risk Analysis of Fundamental Key Distribution Protocols39
3.3.1KDP242
3.3.2A Variant of KDP2 — LXY Protocol44
3.3.3Improved KDP2 — EKDP246
3.4Concluding Remarks48
Chapter 4Electronic Voting50
4.1Introduction50
4.2Related Works52
4.3The Proposed Voting Scheme55
4.3.1Registration Stage58
4.3.2Collecting Stage63
4.3.3Opening Stage65
4.4Security Analysis of The Proposed Voting Scheme66
4.5Comparisons with Related Works72
4.6Concluding Remarks74
Chapter 5Anonymous Endorsement75
5.1Introduction75
5.2The Proposed Endorsement Scheme78
5.2.1Initiation Stage80
5.2.2Registration Stage80
5.2.3Ticket Distribution Stage81
5.2.4Endorsement Origination Stage82
5.2.5Endorsement Stage83
5.2.6Verification and Tally Stage83
5.3Security Analysis of The Proposed Endorsement Scheme84
5.4Scenario88
5.5Concluding Remarks92
Chapter 6Improving GSM Security94
6.1Introduction94
6.2Security Criteria for Mobile Communications97
6.3Current Security Scheme of GSM99
6.4An Improved Security Scheme for GSM101
6.4.1Improved Registration Protocol for GSM105
6.4.2Improved Origination Protocol for GSM108
6.4.3Improved Termination Protocol for GSM109
6.5Comparisons with Current Security Scheme of GSM110
6.6Concluding Remarks111
Chapter 7Conclusions114
7.1Contributions114
7.2Future Research Directions115
Bibliography117
Publications List125

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