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研究生:徐榮輝
論文名稱:預混式火焰現象觀察與氮氧化物生成之研究
指導教授:馬小康馬小康引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:氮氧化物
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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本研究針對預混式火焰現象與氮氧化物生成之研究。除了在實驗室建立相關實驗設備外,並將實驗之火焰溫度場、氮氧化物排放情形、燃燒效率之研究、及火焰結構現象圖,做詳實的實驗量測與記錄,研究之主要內容包括:
(一)由二個不同管徑燃燒器(D=12mm與D=24mm)、改變當量值的大小、量測高度的不同,在無外在擾動因素下,探討火焰結構與流場跟出口流速變化之關係。
(二)藉由管徑大小的改變,可觀察火焰顏色的變化,並分析熱流場中的化合物成分,以及探討溫度場和氮氧化物排放的關係,另外針對燃燒效率探討氮氧化物排放的情形。
(三)利用外加空氣流量之概念,來達成氮氧化物排放減量的目的,在燃燒器的外圍噴入空氣,來觀測火焰的變化,並觀察燃燒所生成的化合物之濃度,並且分析各化合物的排放情形,以求得最佳的燃燒效率。
The study in accordance with premixed flame phenomenon and product of nitrogen oxide. In addition to establish correlative equipment in our laboratory, we must kept records of experiment. The results we did experiment include flame temperature profile, emission of nitrogen oxide, the research of combustion efficiency, and the structure of flames. We analyze the results and improve low NOx burner. Our primary studies are as follows:
(1) According to two different pipe diameter burners(D=12mm & D=
24mm), we changed equivalent ratio. With no external turbulent factor, we discuss structure of flames with change of outlet stream velocity.
(2) To take advantage of changing pipe size, we could observe variation
of flame color. Analyzing chemical composition in thermal fluid field and discussing temperature with product of nitrogen oxide. Besides, we should confer with combustion efficiency and discuss about NOx emission。
(3) Making use of the concept of adding outer air, to achieve the purpose
of reducing NOx emission. Spraying air at the outer of burner, we observe flames and record concentration of chemical composition. Analyzing the emitting condition of chemical composition and obtaining the best combustion efficiency.
目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目錄 III
圖目錄 VI
符號說明 XIII
第一章導論……………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機……………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………2
第二章文獻回顧………………………………………………………4
2.1 火焰特性概述………………………………………………4
2.1.1 火焰的形狀…………………………………………4
2.1.2 火焰的穩定性………………………………………5
2.2 氮氧化物的生成機構………………………………………5
2.2.1 熱氮氧化物…………………………………………6
2.2.2 迅生氮氧化物………………………………………7
2.2.3 燃料氮氧化物………………………………………9
2.2.4 NO 之轉變…………………………………………12
2.2.5 N2的形成路徑………………………………………13
2.3 火焰傳播速度………………………………………………14
2.3.1化學參數對火焰速度之效應………………………16
2.3.2 物理參數對火焰速度之效應………………………17
2.4 火焰溫度……………………………………………………18
2.4.1 絕熱火焰溫度………………………………………18
2.4.2 內層火焰溫度………………………………………19
2.5 低氮氧化物燃燒器…………………………………………19
2.5.1 CE及MHI之設計…………………………………20
2.5.2 Babcock、Wilcox和Babcock-Hitachi之設計……21
2.5.3 Foster Wheeler和IHI之設計………………………22
2.5.4 Kawasaki之設計……………………………………23
2.5.5 分布式混合燃燒器…………………………………24
2.5.6 Steinmuller之設計…………………………………25
2.5.7 Riley Stoker…………………………………………26
2.5.8 近年低氮氧化物發展之趨勢………………………26
第三章實驗設備及步驟………………………………………………28
3.1 燃料與空氣混合比之計算…………………………………28
3.2 實驗設備……………………………………………………29
3.2.1 燃燒器系統…………………………………………30
3.2.2 燃料輸送系統………………………………………30
3.2.3 量測系統……………………………………………32
3.2.4 其他設備……………………………………………32
3.3 實驗步驟……………………………………………………33
3.3.1 實驗前之準備………………………………………33
3.3.2 火焰溫度場之量測及現象觀察……………………34
3.3.3 氮氧化物之量測與火焰行為影響的現象觀察……35
3.3.4 一次空氣對燃燒行為的火焰觀察…………………36
3.3.5 一次空氣對火焰溫度量測與現象觀察……………37
3.3.6 一次空氣對氮氧化物之量測與現象觀察…………37
第四章實驗結果與討論………………………………………………39
4.1 溫度與流場之探討…………………………………………39
4.2 氮氧化物排放之探討………………………………………42
4.3 燃燒效率之探討……………………………………………45
4.4 溫度與氮氧化物排放之關係………………………………48
4.5 氮氧化物排放與燃燒效率之關係…………………………50
第五章結論與建議……………………………………………………54
5.1 結論…………………………………………………………54
5.2 建議…………………………………………………………58
參考文獻………………………………………………………………60
附圖……………………………………………………………………67
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