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研究生:林祖誠
研究生(外文):Lin, Tsu-Cheng
論文名稱:莎翁獨白與直接演敘法:古代演技,現代媒體
論文名稱(外文):Shakespearean Soliloquies and Direct Address: Ancient Skill, Modern Media
指導教授:朱靜美朱靜美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chu, Vivian
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:戲劇研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:戲劇舞蹈學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:187
中文關鍵詞:莎翁獨白直接演敘法現代媒體表演技巧
外文關鍵詞:Shakespearean SoliloquiesDirect AddressModern MediaActing Skill
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強調演員與觀眾之間直接互動的‘直接演敘法’近年來又逐漸受到莎翁導演及演員的青睞,重新登上莎劇舞台而且也廣泛的運用在電影、電視版之莎劇製作中。然而,這種呈現式的表演技巧看似與由史坦尼斯拉夫斯基的‘方法演技’發展而出的肖真、寫實式的電視、電影表演風格相互牴觸。因著這種表演本質上的差異,電影、電視中直接演敘法的使用啟發本文探討這兩種不同演技同台競技的可能性,以及論證直接演敘法,不論是在舞台上或是在現代媒體中,均可為莎翁獨白之表演技巧。因此,本文第一章著重於莎翁悲劇獨白型式的來源、功能、特色、及種類的探討,為以下的論述鋪路。此外,本章也將從電影、電視表演風格的歷史發展中找出其與劇場表演風格演變之間的關係與發展脈絡,作交互式的分析。第二章中將論述直接演敘法為莎翁獨白之有效的表演技巧。此部份將從莎劇舞台表演風格自十六世紀伊麗莎白時代到二十世紀之歷史演變中,探索歷代的劇場時尚對當時表演風格及技巧之影響。此外,也將從表演傳統、舞台與觀眾的互動關係以及獨白文本分析三方面來探討直接演敘法為莎翁獨白之表演技巧。第三章將專注於直接演敘法在現代媒體中的運用情形。為求後續比較分析的方便,將先針對近代莎劇電影、電視版本,從影片拍攝的方式與風格的角度切入,進行分類。之後,再由自四0年代在莎翁劇場開始風行之‘導演式莎劇’的角度來探索電影、電視媒體以導演為製作風格導向的現象,並從這樣的角度來論述直接演敘法在其中的運用手法以及其戲劇效果。透過上述之論述,本文期望能探討出直接演敘法這項古代演技在電影、電視這種現代媒體中,其使用之有效性以及發展之可能性。

Direct address, an presentational acting skill which emphasizes the direct, communicative interaction between actor and audience, has recently regained its preference by the directors and actors for the performance of Shakespearean soliloquies and has been widely applied in the modern Shakespearean productions both on the theatrical stage and in the modern media, cinema and television. However, such a presentational skill seems go against the dominating representational, realistic acting style of the media, based on and developed from Stanislavsky’s Method acting. With this contradiction in essence, the application of direct address in cinema and television arouses the curiosity and opens the room for discussion about the effectiveness of direct address for the performance of Shakespearean soliloquies in the modern Shakespeare films and televisions. Therefore, to achieve a thorough and in-depth analysis of such a phenomena, Chapter 1 is dedicated to the analysis of Shakespearean soliloquies in tragedies from the creative source, functions, characteristics, and types to generate a textual background for the discussion of acting skills and also to the historical development of the acting styles and skills in cinema and television to trace the interactive relationship between the acting styles of the two main genres of entertainment, the theatre and the modern media. Chapter 2 tries to justify that direct address is an effective acting skill for Shakespearean soliloquies. To achieve the goal, attempt is made first from the historical development of Shakespearean performance style and acting skills to review the theatrical vogue of Shakespearean productions in each generation from the Elizabethan period down to the twentieth century and its influence on the development of acting styles of the time. Besides, the analysis of the application of direct address on Shakespearean stage aims at the essential aspects of this acting skill from the view point of the acting tradition from which direct address has inherited and formed, the thrust stage which facilitates the roundness of audience and the interactive communication between the two sides of the stage, and the detailed text analysis of the soliloquies to highlight the quality and elements for which direct address can serve best. Chapter 3 deals with the application of direct address in the modern media. To generate an overall perspective of Shakespeare films and televisions, these productions are classified into different modes of the shooting and accordingly to examine the use of direct address in the media. Besides, the prevailing dominance of directors’ Shakespeare in the theatre from the 1940s has prompted the power of the director in a production, especially in the director-oriented media like cinema and television. Their choices will direct the whole style of production, including the acting skills. And in the last section, the performances of soliloquies from various Shakespeare films and televisions, with different directors’ approaches and actors’ application, are put together to compare the method and the effectiveness of the use of direct address. With such effort, it is expected to justify that direct address, though an ancient acting skill for Shakespearean soliloquy descending from the Elizabethan stage, is still an effective one in cinema and television, the modern media.

Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Motive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.3 Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.4 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Soliloquies in Shakespearean Tragedies . . . . . . . . . .7
1.6.1 Creative Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
1.6.2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6.3 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.6.4 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.7 Historical Development of the New Media and the Associating Acting Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 2 Direct Address as an Acting Skill for Shakespearean Soliloquies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
2.1 Historical Development of Shakespearean Performance Style and Acting Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
2.2 Direct Address as an Acting Skill for Shakespearean Soliloquies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
2.2.1 Acting Tradition of Direct Address . . . . . . . . . .59
2.2.2 Stage, Audience, and Direct Address . . . . . . . . . 71
2.2.3 Text Analysis and Direct Address . . . . . . . . . . .74
Chapter 3 Direct Address in the New Media: Inquiry into Four Shakespearean Tragedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.1 Modern Cinema and Television Productions of the Four Shakespearean Tragedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.1.1 Types of the Screened Productions of Shakespearean Tragedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.1.2 Direct Address and the Modern Media . . . . . . . . . 107
3.2 Application of Direct Address in the Modern Media . . .110
3.2.1 Directors’ Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.2.2 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Chapter 4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Words Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185

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